這個圓形的建築位於英國北部北約克郡（North Yorkshire）斯卡伯勒市（Scarborough）附近的斯塔卡（Star Carr）考古遺址。
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The site belongs to the early Mesolithic and was occupied from around 8770 BC until about 8460 BC, possibly with a period of abandonment between 8680 BC and 8580 BC. It was discovered in 1947 during the clearing of a field drain by John Moore, an archaeologist from Scarborough. It was then excavated from 1949-1951 by Professor Grahame Clark of the University of Cambridge.
Clark found what he called a brushwood platform which appeared on the edge of the former Lake Flixton. The platform would have been laid down to consolidate the boggy water's edge. Recent excavations have revealed that people would have lived on the dry land upslope of the lake and at the lake edge various activities would have been carried out.
There is much debate about when in the year it was occupied. Mesolithic people hunted a number of animals including red and roe deer, elk, aurochs and wild boar. but there are various seasonal assessments and as the site was occupied over several hundred years it is likely that seasonal practices varied over time.
The mud of the lake has preserved items dropped into it and flint, bone and antler tools and manufacturing debris have been found. The flint came from nearby beaches, which at time of occupation would have been about 10-20 km distant, and also from the Yorkshire Wolds immediately to the south of the site.
A fragment of a wooden oar implies that the people who occupied the site also built boats, probably coracles or simple canoes used to travel or fish. There was also occupation on some of the islands on the lake which confirms the use of boats. Beads made from stone and amber suggest personal adornment. Remains of a dog are indication of the animal's domestication during this period.
The most famous finds are the headdresses made from red deer skulls with the antlers still attached. The skull had two holes perforated in it and it has been suggested that it was used as a hunting disguise, or in some form of ritual practice. Recent work suggests that these, along with other objects made from red deer antler, appear to have been respectfully deposited at the lake edge due to the spiritual significance of red deer to the people who occupied the site.
Star Carr house
In August 2010, the team announced that they had discovered the oldest known house in Britain, dated to 10,500 years before the present. The Star Carr house was comparable to an Iron Age roundhouse, about 3.5 metres (11 ft) wide and made of wood. It is believed to have been used for between 200-500 years after its construction.
- ^ "Star Carr". Pastscape.org.uk. http://www.pastscape.org.uk/hob.aspx?hob_id=80206. Retrieved 2008-01-15.
- ^ a b Scarre (2005), p. 397.
- ^ Scarre (2005), p. 396.
- ^ Coughlan, Sean (10 August 2010). "Archaeologists discover Britain's 'oldest house'". BBC News. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/education-10929343.
- Scarre, Chris (ed) (2005). The Human Past: World Prehistory & the Development of Human Societies. Thames & Hudson. ISBN 0-500-28531-4.
- New Excavations at Star Carr, University of York
- Star Carr, Department of Archaeology, University of Cambridge
- In The Beginning, From Dot to Domesday
- Red deer antler head-dress from Star Carr, British Museum
- Stone Age remains are Britain's earliest house, University of Manchester
- Star Carr - The Otherside of the Antler, video about the excavations in 2006, Vale of Pickering Archaeological Trus