2012年6月28日 星期四

My London, and Welcome to It 我的倫敦啊,歡迎你來

My London, and Welcome to It

Andrew Testa for The New York Times
The Waterloo Bridge, with St. Paul's in the background.

IF you’ve saved this article for your long-planned trip to London, and you’re now reading it for the third time, circling Heathrow, well, I’m sorry. You’re probably still up there because the queue at passport control has become mutinous. They’re snaking out onto the runways — grim, silently furious visitors, unable to use their phones, forbidden from showing anything but abject acquiescence to the blunt instrument that is the immigration officer at the distant desk.
I always feel bad about the queues at Heathrow as I walk to the coming home rather than the going abroad line. And as you stand there, for hours, looking at the two groups — the indigenous and the visitors — you’ll notice something. It’s a good thing. A heartwarming, little consolation thing. They look exactly the same. There is no difference between you and us, not in color, ethnicity, dress or demeanor. Those who live in London and those who visit are exactly the same.

Andrew Testa for The New York Times
The National Gallery.
Andrew Testa for The New York Times
The Mayflower pub.
Andrew Testa for The New York Times
The statue of Peter Pan in Kensington Gardens.

In half my lifetime this city has become a homogenous, integrated, international place of choice rather than birth. Not without grit and friction, but amazingly polyglot and variegated. I travel a lot, and this must be the most successful mongrel casserole anywhere.
Every national team that comes to compete will find a welcoming committee from their homes. London is the sixth largest French city in the world. The Wolseley, the cafe where I often eat, and where I wrote a book about breakfast, has 24 nationalities working in it, from every continent bar the Antarctic. They’re also all Londoners. And that’s a good thing. Although I understand that, as a visitor, it’s not necessarily what you want to come and see — this department store of imported humanity. You want stiff-lipped men in bowler hats and cheeky cockneys with their thumbs in their waistcoats and fish on their heads.
I’m sorry, but they’re not here anymore. No city’s exported image lags so far behind its homegrown veracity than London’s, so let’s start with what you’re not going to find. We’re all out of cheeky cockneys, pearly kings and their queens, and costermongers. You’re not going to find ’60s psychedelia and the Beatles in Carnaby Street. There aren’t any punks under 50 on the King’s Road; there are no more tweedy, mustachioed, closeted gay writers in Bloomsbury, no Harry Potter at King’s Cross. There aren’t men in white tie, smoking cigars outside Pall Mall clubs and there isn’t any fog, but you can find Sherlock Holmes’s house on Baker Street.
A lot of London’s image never was. There never was a Dickensian London, or a Shakespearean London, or a swinging London. Literary London is best looked for in books, and in old bookshops like Sotheran’s on Sackville Street. One of the small joys that’s easy to miss in London is the blue plaques on buildings. These are put up to commemorate the famous on the houses they lived in. You won’t have heard of a lot of them, but some come as a surprise. There are quite a few Americans and some amusing neighbors. Jimi Hendrix lived next door to Handel, in space if not in time.
London is a city of ghosts; you feel them here. Not just of people, but eras. The ghost of empire, or the blitz, the plague, the smoky ghost of the Great Fire that gave us Christopher Wren’s churches and ushered in the Georgian city. London can see the dead, and hugs them close. If New York is a wise guy, Paris a coquette, Rome a gigolo and Berlin a wicked uncle, then London is an old lady who mutters and has the second sight. She is slightly deaf, and doesn’t suffer fools gladly.
Trying to be a tourist at home is tricky. It’s a good discipline, and rather disappointing. I know as little as you do about being a visitor in this town where I have lived since I was a year old, having been born in Edinburgh. We all look at the crowds of tourists on the Mall and think: What is it you see? What do you get out of this? Like every Londoner I know, I’ve never seen the changing of the guard. It’s an inconvenient traffic snarl-up every weekday morning.
With more guilt, I realize that London may be a great metropolis, but it’s not very nice to people. We’re not friendly. Not that we’re rude, like the Parisians with their theatrical and frankly risible haughtiness; nor do we have New Yorkers’ shouty impatience. Londoners are just permanently petulant, irritated. I think we wake up taking offense. All those English teacup manners, the exaggerated please and thank yous, are really the muzzle we put on our short tempers. There are, for instance, a dozen inflections of the word sorry. Only one of them means “I’m sorry.”
So what you shouldn’t expect is to get on with the natives, or for them to take you to their bosoms, or to invite you to their homes, or to buy you a drink. They may, occasionally, if backed against a wall, be rudimentarily helpful, but mostly they’ll ignore you with the huffing sighs of people in a hurry. When you get lost, you’ll stay lost.
We have, collectively, osmotically, decided that we hate the Olympics. It’s costing too much, it’s causing an enormous amount of trouble and inconvenience, it’s bound to put up prices, make it impossible to find a taxi, but most of all, one thing this city doesn’t need is more gawping, milling, incontinently happy tourists.
On the bus recently a middle-aged, middle-class, middleweight woman peered out of the window at the stalled traffic and furiously bellowed; “Oh my God, is there no end to these improvements?” It was the authentic voice of London, and I thought it could be the city’s motto, uttered at any point in its history, embroidered in gold braid on the uniforms of every petty official.
I recently interviewed our mayor, Boris Johnson. He may be the ex-mayor by the time you land. We have an election coming up. We hate the imposition of that, as well, and all the possible improvements it might bring. I told him I was writing this piece, and asked what message he’d like to send, fraternally, to the people of America, should they be optimistic enough to visit. “Ah, ooh, well, this is very important,” he said with a faintly Churchillian inflection. (He was actually born in New York.) “Um, visitors should hire a bike and ride through the parks.” The vehicles are sometimes referred to as Boris bikes after him, and have been an unexpectedly wobbly and careening success — easy to get, easy to use and a really easy way to end up seeing how brilliant the National Health Service is.
The parks, though, are wonderful, with a wildness that is artifice. Like the English, they appear casual, but involve a great deal of work. Go to Hyde Park and Kensington Gardens, where Peter Pan comes from. You should see his statue on the banks of the Serpentine. One of the most charming sculptures in any city, it was made by Sir George Frampton, paid for by J. M. Barrie and erected in secret overnight so that children out with their nannies would think it had arrived by magic.
London is one of the finest cities for public statuary. The great and the eternally forgotten glare down at you from horses and morality. When you get to Trafalgar Square, as undoubtedly you will, you’ll look up at Nelson’s Column, where Adm. Horatio Nelson peers down the Mall, either into the bedroom windows of Buckingham Palace, or to review his fleet; there are small ships on top of all the lampposts.
You might also like to pay your respects to George Washington outside the nearby National Gallery to pay your penance to fine art. He was a gift from Virginia, and stands on imported American earth because he said that he’d never set foot in London again. And don’t miss Charles I on the west side of the square. This is the finest equestrian statue in the city. Just down the road in the Banqueting House, you can see where his head was cut off, and also the brilliant Rubens painting of the Apotheosis of James I.
The Thames is London’s great secret, hidden in full view. We do very little with it, or on it, except complain how difficult it is to get over and under. It is the reason London is here at all, but the people stand aloof because we have long memories and longer noses. The Thames was so disgustingly noxious and pestilent that Parliament would abandon the Palace of Westminster when the weather got too hot in the summer, because the smell became dangerous.
London was the biggest city in the world, and the river was the biggest sewer on earth. The Victorians finally built an underground sewerage system that was so efficient we still use it. But they also made the Embankment, which lifts the city above the river. Getting access isn’t easy, but if you only do one thing while you’re here, you should take a boat from the center of town and go either downstream to the maritime museum at Greenwich or up toward Oxford and get off at Kew Gardens and Syon House.
The river is the best way to see the city. London glides past you like human geology. It is not a particularly impressive city seen from above; not like Paris or New York, although you can go up to Primrose Hill and Hampstead Heath and look back, and it has a dreamy loveliness brought on by distance. And Wordsworth said that earth had nothing so fair to show as the view of the morning from Westminster Bridge. Two hundred years later he wouldn’t recognize it, but it’s still pretty impressive.
The great problem for visitors to London is size. This is a big place. It’s not a walkable city; there are great walks but you can’t stride from everywhere to anywhere. And it’s easy to lose any sense of where you are in relation to everything else. So it’s best to do what the natives do, and think of London as a loose federation of villages, states and principalities, and take them in one at a time. The oldest bits are in the east. The Tower of London and the Roman Wall mark the beginning of the city. To the east are the docks and the working classes, and what is now the trendiest and most youthful, fashionable bit of London. As the city grew rich, it grew west. Mayfair, Chelsea, Kensington, Notting Hill are mostly Victorian.
You will do all the big-ticket tourist things. I doubt there’s anything I can say that will convince you that the best way to see Tower Bridge is on a postcard, and that the Tower of London is a big, dull box packed with Italian schoolchildren, or that Harrods is much the same. But while the living Londoners are to be avoided, the dead ones should be sought out. St. Paul’s Cathedral is London’s parish church, the single greatest building in Britain, designed by Christopher Wren. It’s light, civilized, rational and humane — everything Londoners aren’t. It has monuments to J. M. W. Turner, the Duke of Wellington and, of course, John Donne, who preached there. Behind the altar is a little memorial chapel and stained-glass window dedicated to America and the help it gave London and the nation in World War II.
Westminster Abbey is the great church of state. It has the Grave of the Unknown Warrior, the Coronation Chair, which is surprisingly Ikea and covered in graffiti from Westminster schoolboys, and there is Poets’ Corner, the marbled hall of fame of Britishness. Just down the street from St. Paul’s there is another Wren church, St. Bride’s, by tradition and practice the journalists’ church. Dryden and Pepys were parishioners. Above the font there is a little shelf, and on it the bust of a girl. She is Virginia Dare. Her parents were married here and then emigrated to the Roanoke Colony. On Aug. 18, 1587, Virginia arrived, the first child of English parents to be born in America. No one knows what happened to her, but this is an immensely touching little memorial in the Old World to the promise of the New. Not one Londoner in 1,000 knows who Virginia was, or that she’s there.
There are thousands of these odd moments in London. You will discover your own, like the alley that has the original Embassy of Texas in it. It’s like opening the drawers in an old house, where so much was put away for safekeeping and then forgotten.
Of course, you should go to the pub. Like the bistros of Paris, the pubs of London are having a hard time of it. Their role as the working classes’ living room can no longer compete with cable TV and supermarket beer. But still there are plenty of beautiful and elegiac pubs, and you should come upon them serendipitously. But I might commend the Mayflower on the river in the East End. This is older than the ship that shares its name, which set off from here. And the Windsor Castle in Kensington is a pretty West London pub. If the weather is fine, it has a charming garden.
I suppose I ought to recommend places to eat, as London has such a Babel of palates and lexicon of digestions. It boasts the most diverse cuisines of any city. But given that you didn’t come all this way just to eat Chinese or Moroccan, you can also get good English. It will be meaty and Victorian, long on pork and the extremities of cows, pigs and offal. Three I recommend. Anchor & Hope near the Old Vic theater on the Cut, has great food in an energetically noisy pub. Bentley’s Oyster Bar & Grill off Piccadilly, and St. John, a restaurant that has become a point of pilgrimage for visiting chefs. And you really should eat Indian here. Curry is England’s favorite dinner, and our national dish.
Plenty of people come to shop, but it’s expensive, and Bond Street and Sloane Street are pretty much what you’d find at home. It won’t have escaped your notice that the avaricious first world has become a branded and cloned airport lounge.
One thing that is singularly British, and specifically London, is men’s tailoring. This is where the suit was invented, and where it is still made better than anywhere. Savile Row is a very London experience, satisfyingly and shockingly costly, but also dangerously addictive. I’d recommend Brian Russell on Sackville Street, which is now run by Fadia Aoun, a rare female tailor.
You need to see London at night, particularly the theaters. But not just the night life. London itself looks best in the dark. It’s a pretty safe city, and you can walk in most places after sunset. It has a sedate and ghostly beauty. In the crepuscular kindness, you can see not just how she is, but how she once was, the layers of lives that have been lived here. Somebody with nothing better to do worked out that for every one of us living today, there are 15 ghosts. In most places you don’t notice them, but in London you do. The dead and the fictional ghosts of Sherlock Holmes and Falstaff, Oliver Twist, Wendy and the Lost Boys, all the kindly, garrulous ghosts that accompany you in the night. The river runs like dark silk through the heart of the city, and the bridges dance with light. There are corners of silence in the revelry of the West End and Soho, and in the inky shadows foxes and owls patrol Hyde Park, which is still illuminated by gaslight.
Now the Olympics has come and dragged us all into the bright light, and a lot of attention is being given to London, and we’re not used to it. We’re not good at showing off. We’re not a good time to be had by all, we’re not an easy date. London isn’t a party animal by nature, it doesn’t join in or have a favorite karaoke song. It does, though, have a wicked, dry and often cruel sense of humor. It is clever, literate and dramatic. It is private and taciturn, a bit of a bore, and surprisingly sentimental. And it doesn’t make friends quickly, is awkward around visitors. We will be pleased when all the fuss and nosiness has gone away.
So come, by all means, but don’t expect the kindness of strangers unless you decide to stay, in which case you’ll be very welcome indeed. There’s always room for one more on top, which is what they used to say on the buses when the buses had conductors, which they don’t anymore. And that’s another bloody improvement.
A. A. GILL is a contributing editor for Vanity Fair and a features writer for The Sunday Times of London. His upcoming book about America will be published by Simon & Schuster in 2013.


Andrew Testa for The New York Times

Andrew Testa for The New York Times
Andrew Testa for The New York Times
Andrew Testa for The New York Times
我始終對希斯羅機場的隊伍有種很不舒服的感覺,尤其是當我排在“到達”隊伍時,這種感覺比排在“出發”隊伍時更加明顯。當你在那兒站上幾個小時,看 着這兩條隊——本國人和訪客——你就會有所發現。這是一件好事,是一件溫暖又寬慰人心的事。他們看起來是完全一樣的人。你們和我們沒什麼不同,無論是膚 色、種族、衣着還是舉止。那些住在倫敦的人和短期來訪的人是完全一樣的。
每一個來參賽的國家隊都會找到一個來自本國的歡迎委員會。倫敦是全球第六大講法語的城市。有一家我經常光顧的咖啡廳叫沃爾斯利 (Wolseley),在那裡我寫完了一本關於早餐的書。那裡的員工來自除了南極洲之外六大洲的24個國家。但他們也都是倫敦人。這是一個很好的現象。雖 然作為一個遊客我能理解,你來這並不是想看這種多元化員工的百貨商店,而是想看戴着圓頂高帽的嘴唇僵硬的男人、把大拇指伸進馬甲兜里、頭上頂着魚的厚臉皮 的倫敦佬。
我們這沒有厚臉皮的倫敦佬,沒有珍珠王和珍珠王后,也沒有沿街叫賣的小販。在卡爾納比街上你找不到20世紀60年代的迷幻劑和披頭士;英皇大街上沒 有50歲以下的朋克;布魯姆斯伯里沒有穿着花哨、留着絡腮鬍、行蹤詭秘的同性戀作家;國王十字車站也沒有哈利·波特。沒有打着白色領帶、在蓓爾美爾街的俱 樂部外抽雪茄的男人,也沒有霧,但是你可以在貝克大街上找到夏洛克·福爾摩斯的住所。
有很多“倫敦形象”是從未存在過的。從來沒有“狄更斯式的倫敦”,沒有“莎士比亞式的倫敦”,也沒有“搖擺倫敦”(swinging London,20世紀60年代的英倫文化——譯註)。“文學倫敦”(Literary Lodon)最容易從書中找到,在薩爾維克街(Sackville Street)上的一些舊書店就可以感受到,比如索德蘭(Sotheran’s)書店。也有一些容易錯過的小樂趣,建築物上的藍色徽章就是其一。這些徽章 是為了紀念名人曾經住過的房子。很多名人也許你沒聽過,但有一些着實會讓你驚喜。那裡有不少美國人,還有一些有趣的鄰里關係。吉米·亨德里克斯(Jimi Hendrix)就住在亨德爾(Handel)家隔壁,在不同的年代,二人在同一空間產生了交集。
倫敦是一座幽靈之城。不僅僅是人類的幽靈,還包括時代的印記,這裡有帝國、大轟炸、瘟疫(1665年的鼠疫——譯註)的幽靈,大火災(1666年發 生——譯註)煙霧重重的幽靈則給我們留下了克里斯托弗·雷恩(Christopher Wren)設計重建的教堂,並由此開闢了格魯吉亞城。倫敦能看到死魂靈,並將他們緊緊擁住。如果把紐約比作自作聰明的人、巴黎比作賣弄風情的女子、羅馬比 作舞男、柏林比作邪惡的大叔,那麼倫敦就是一個喃喃低語、神神叨叨的老婦人。她有點耳聾,受不了蠢貨。
試圖以遊客的眼光看待家鄉,有一種微妙的感覺。這是一次很好的訓練,但也會令人失望。我出生在愛丁堡,從一歲起就住在倫敦。如果從遊客的角度來看, 我和你對這裡的了解程度差不多。我們都會看着摩爾大街上擁擠的人群,這樣想着:你們在看什麼?你們能從中得到什麼?和我認識的每一位倫敦人一樣,我從來沒 看過衛兵交接儀式,在每一個工作日的早晨,這裡都會擠得水泄不通,讓人頭痛極了。
帶着更多的負罪感,我意識到倫敦雖然是一個大都市,但它對人們並不和善。我們不太友好。並不是說我們粗魯,像巴黎人那種誇張而直白的傲慢;我們也不 像紐約人那樣大吵大嚷的不耐煩。倫敦人只是永遠帶着暴躁和惱火。我覺得我們從一起床就自動進入攻擊模式。所有那些英國式的茶杯禮儀,誇張的“請”和“謝 謝”,只是給我們的急性子上一個“口套”罷了。比方說,在各種語調的“抱歉”中,只有一個是真的指“我很抱歉。”
我最近採訪了我們的市長鮑里斯·約翰遜(Boris Johnson)。也許你來到這裡的時候他已經是“前市長”了。我們很快就要進行選舉了,我們同樣討厭這種強加於人的制度,以及所有可能由此帶來的改造工程。
我告訴他我正在寫這個選題,並問他,如果讓美國人樂於到訪,有哪些信息是他希望以兄弟般的口吻向他們傳達的。“嗯,哦,這點非常重要,”他以一種微 弱的、丘吉爾式的語調說道:(其實他出生在紐約。)“嗯,遊客可以租一輛單車遊覽公園。”倫敦的交通工具有時是指 “鮑里斯單車”(以他的名字命名的一項 單車計劃),這項計劃出人意料地在跌跌撞撞中獲得了成功——租車方便,簡單易用,並且能夠真切感受到英國國民保健制度的優越性。
倫敦的公園的確很棒,有很多人工雕琢的景觀。就像英國人,雖然表面看起來很隨意,但其實添加了大量的修飾。去海德公園和彼得·潘的故鄉肯辛頓花園 (Kensington Gardens)看看,你可以在九曲湖(Serpentine,也作“蛇形湖”)畔看到彼得·潘的雕像。這是最具魅力的城市雕像之一,由喬治·弗蘭普頓爵 士(Sir George Frampton)創作,J. M. 巴里(J. M. Barrie)資助,是趁着夜色悄悄矗立起來的,所以第二天被保姆帶出門的孩子們還以為是魔法顯靈了。
倫敦是世界上最出色的公共雕塑城市之一。到處都是馬和偉人向你投來偉大的其實已被歷史遺忘的目光。當你去特拉法加廣場(Trafalgar Square)時,毫無疑問你會仰望納爾遜紀念碑(Nelson’s Column),海軍上將霍雷肖·納爾遜(Adm. Horatio Nelson)從那裡向下凝視,要麼是望向白金漢宮(Buckingham Palace)的卧室窗戶,要麼是巡視他的艦隊,那裡每一根路燈柱頂上都鑄有一艘小船。
你或許也想去附近的國家美術館(National Gallery)外膜拜一下喬治·華盛頓(George Washington),對高雅藝術支付你的懺悔。這尊雕像是弗吉尼亞州贈送的禮物,他就站在那塊美國製造的“領土”上,因為他說過他再也不會踏足倫敦的 土地。也不要錯過廣場西側的查爾斯一世(Charles I)雕像。這是倫敦最精美的騎馬雕像。沿路一直走到國宴廳(Banqueting House),你可以看到當時他被斬首的地方,還有魯本斯(Rubens)的絕世畫作《尊奉詹姆斯一世》( Apotheosis of James I)。
泰晤士河是倫敦最大的秘密,隱藏在眾目睽睽之下。我們對此(或為之)幾乎什麼都沒做,除了抱怨過河很難(無論是從河上還是河下)。整個倫敦都是依河 而建,但人們總是敬而遠之,因為我們有很強的記憶力和更敏銳的嗅覺。泰晤士河曾嚴重發臭並誘發傳染病,以至於國會在盛夏時節要搬離威斯敏斯特宮,因為這氣 味開始變得危險。
倫敦曾是全世界最大的城市,而泰晤士河又曾是地球上最大的污水河。到維多利亞時代終於建造了一個高效的地下排水系統,我們沿用至今。但是當時也建造 了河堤,把整個城市提升到了河流之上。親近這條河並非易事,但是如果你在這裡只做一件事,那麼你應該從市中心搭船,要麼去下游的格林威治的海事博物館 (maritime museum),要麼往上游的牛津方向走,在皇家植物園(Kew Gardens)和賽昂宮(Syon House)下船。
河流往往是觀賞一座城市的最佳方式。倫敦就像人類地質學一般在你的兩側展開。倫敦不是一個適合從高處觀全景的城市;不像巴黎或紐約那樣,雖然你也可 以爬到櫻草花山(Primrose Hill)上或者去漢普特斯西斯公園(Hampstead Heath)回望,享受一步一風景帶來的夢幻般的美妙。華茲華斯說過,地球上沒有一處景色能夠與威斯敏斯特大橋上的清晨美景相媲美。200年後的今天,風 景已大不相同,但仍令人難以忘懷。 對於到訪倫敦的遊客來說,最大的問題就是面積。這是個很大的地方,步行不太方便。有很多步行道,但是如果從一個地方到 另一個地方只靠走路是不行的,而且也很容易迷路。所以最好還是入鄉隨俗吧,把倫敦想成一個鬆散的國度,包括村莊、州,還有領地,一次只去一個地方。最古老 的城區在東部。倫敦塔和羅馬牆是這個城市的起源。往東走是碼頭和勞動階級的聚居地,現在是倫敦最新潮、最年輕和時尚的地區。隨着倫敦變得富裕,西部也發展 起來了。梅費爾、切爾西、肯辛頓、諾丁山大都是在維多利亞時代興起的。
我知道你肯定要當個被宰的遊客。我不知道怎麼才能說服你——觀賞塔橋(Tower Bridge)的最佳方式是買張明信片。倫敦塔(Tower of London)是一個巨大又沉悶的盒子,裡面都是意大利的小學生。其實哈羅茲百貨公司(Harrods)也差不多。雖然最好避開倫敦人多的地方,但可以去 憑弔一些已逝的人。聖保羅大教堂(St. Paul’s Cathedral )是倫敦的教區教堂,也是英國規模最大的教堂,由克里斯托弗·雷恩(Christopher Wren)設計。它簡潔、文明、理性、仁慈——有着所有倫敦人不具備的品格。那裡有J. M. W. 特納(J. M. W. Turner)、威靈頓公爵(Duke of Wellington)以及約翰·多恩(John Donne)的紀念碑,約翰·多恩還曾在這裡佈道。在祭壇後面是一個小的紀念教堂和彩色玻璃窗,用於紀念美國在二戰中為倫敦和英國所提供的援助。
西敏寺(Westminster Abbey)是英國的一座大教堂(威斯敏斯特教堂)。那裡有無名戰士紀念碑(Grave of the Unknown Warrior)、愛德華一世加冕寶座,風格令人驚異得與宜家(Ikea)接近,上面還布滿了威斯敏斯特小學生的塗鴉;還有詩人角(Poets’ Corner)——安葬着英國文豪們的大理石大廳。沿着聖保羅大教堂(St. Paul’s)往下走,會看到另一個雷恩設計的教堂——聖布里奇教堂(St. Bride’s),從傳統和實踐上來說,它也被稱為“記者教堂”。德萊頓(Dryden)和佩皮斯(Pepys)曾是教區居民。前面上方是一個小架子,放 着一個女孩的半身像。她叫維吉尼亞·戴爾 (Virginia Dare)。她的父母在這裡結婚,之後遷移到羅納克島殖民地。1587年8月18日,維吉尼亞出生了,她是第一個由英國父母在美國生下的孩子。沒有人知道 她遭遇了什麼,但這箇舊時代的感人的小雕像象徵著對新時代的許諾。1000個倫敦人里,也不會有一個人知道維吉尼亞是誰,或者她的雕像就放在那兒。
當然,你還應該感受一下酒吧。就像巴黎那些小酒館一樣,倫敦的酒吧也在艱難度日。酒吧作為勞動階級的“起居室”,已經比不上坐在家裡的起居室,在那 裡你還能看着有線電視,喝着超市的啤酒。但是倫敦仍然有一些漂亮並帶有哀傷氣息的酒吧,你應該嘗試和它們邂逅。不過,我要推薦一下倫敦東區河邊的“五月 花”(Mayflower)酒吧,它比和它同名的“五月花號”船還要古老,那艘船就是從這裡起航的。肯辛頓的溫莎城堡(Windsor Castle)是倫敦西部的一個漂亮的酒吧。在天氣好的時候,那裡的花園非常迷人。
我覺得我應該推薦一些餐廳,因為倫敦也是美食的集中地與餐飲大百科全書,自稱擁有比任何一個城市更豐富的美食。但是既然你千里迢迢不僅僅是為了來吃 中國菜或摩洛哥菜,你還可以嘗到很棒的英國菜。英式菜肴以肉為主,兼具維多利亞風格,擅長烹調豬肉、牛腿肉、豬腿以及下水。我推薦三家餐廳:在老維克劇院 (Old Vic theater)附近的Anchor & Hope,它在卡特街(The Cut),有很棒的食物和活力四射的酒吧;背對皮卡迪利大街(Piccadilly)的Bentley’s Oyster Bar & Grill;還有St. John,這家餐廳已經成為了廚師遊客的朝聖地。你真應該嘗試一下那裡的印度菜。咖喱是英格蘭人最喜歡的晚餐,也算是我們的“國菜”。
有很多人會去購物,但是東西都太貴了。邦德街(Bond Street)和斯隆街(Sloane Street)上的大部分東西在你的國家也能找到。你不難發現,貪婪的“第一世界”國家早已經變成了充斥各種品牌、與其他國家並無二致的機場休息室。
不過有一樣英國獨有的特色,尤其是在倫敦,就是男裝定製。這裡可以製作西裝,而且仍然比世界上任何一個地方做得都要好。來薩維爾街(Savile Row)逛上一圈,是非常典型的倫敦體驗。令人滿足又驚人地昂貴,但又具有危險的誘惑力。我推薦薩克維爾街的Brian Russell,這是一家很少見的由女裁縫經營的店,店主叫法迪亞·奧恩(Fadia Aoun)。
你還要看看倫敦的夜景,尤其是劇院的夜景,而不僅僅是享受夜生活。倫敦的夜晚比白天更美。這是一座很安全的城市,在日落後,你可以步行到大部分的地 方。這裡有一種沉靜的、鬼魅般的美麗。在柔和的微光下,你不僅能看清她當下的樣貌,還有她的曾經——過往生活的每一個層面。一些人的存在意義,似乎是專為 活在今天的我們做出一些事情。這裡飄蕩着至少15個幽靈。在大多數地方,你不會注意到他們,但是在倫敦,你會感受得到。比如夏洛克·福爾摩斯 (Sherlock Holmes)和福士塔夫(Falstaff,出自莎士比亞同名喜劇——譯註)、奧利弗·特維斯特(Oliver Twist,出自《霧都孤兒》——譯註)、溫蒂和遺失的男孩們(Wendy and the Lost Boys,出自《彼得·潘與溫蒂》)的虛構的靈魂——所有這些在夜晚陪伴你的,善意的、嘮叨的幽靈。泰晤士河像一條深色的絲帶,穿流過倫敦的中心地帶,塔 橋在燈光下起舞。狂歡的西區和蘇豪區也有寂靜的角落;夜色中,狐狸和貓頭鷹藉著煤氣燈的微光,結伴在海德公園漫步。
現在奧運會要到了,我們被拉到了強光之下,倫敦受到了太多關注,我們並不習慣這樣。我們不擅長炫耀,我們也沒有準備好接受所有人的目光,我們也不是 個很容易搞定的約會對象。從本質上來說,倫敦不是一隻“派對動物”,它不會主動加入派對,也沒有拿手的卡拉OK曲。倫敦有的只是一種邪惡的、沉悶的,有時 甚至是殘酷的“幽默感”。它聰明,有深厚的文學和戲劇素養;它內向、沉默寡言,又出奇地多愁善感。它屬於慢熱型,在生人面前笨手笨腳。當所有的忙亂和紛擾 離開之後,我們會很高興。
A.A.Gill是《名利場》(Vanity Fair)的特約編輯,也是《星期日泰晤士報》(The Sunday Times of London)的特稿作者。他有一本關於美國的新書將由西蒙舒斯特國際出版公司(Simon & Schuster)在2013年出版。

2012年6月27日 星期三

Edward Lear 諧趣詩 鳥類畫

Edward Lear 諧趣詩 鳥類畫『未晚齋』

(今年是 Edward Lear 200周年慶  上文登在科學雜誌 因他也是著名的鳥類插畫家 Edward Lear - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia    奧杜邦(John James Audubon)創作的《美國鳥類》(The Birds of America此書中國有翻譯)齊名。)


2005年我介紹 Edward Lear 的諧趣詩 Edward Lear, Book of Nonsense 1-10
他很有毅力  將該書以"每日一詩"方式翻譯出來

可惜的是  瑞麟兄給我回信說  他已將BLOGs中英美文學部分都刪除了

----2005 Simon University 一瞥
rl 留言(re: 李叔湘先生的『未晚齋』(文集)--
為了這篇作業不想作晚飯的rl ):「


其 中的李尔和他的谐趣诗就是日前我每日一诗的诗人Edward Lear;校长所提的J.M. Barrie作品指的是Dear Brutus,则是在《第二梦》这篇文章里,我个人因为并未阅读过这部作品,所以对此无动于衷。文中大致介绍这是三幕剧剧本,剧名取自第三幕,剧中人引用 莎翁的两行诗:
Casius The fault, dear Brutus, is not in our stars, But in ourselves, that we are underlings.
文章取名《第二梦》是作者曾在协和医学院看过燕大毕业演出的一个话剧,剧名就叫《第二梦》,作者觉得情节与Dear Brutus十分相似,认为是译本或改编本。文章其余部分开始介绍第二梦的故事和一些对白。
文末始介绍J.M. Barrie一生写了38个剧本,其中以《可敬的克莱登》和《彼得潘》最有名。」
由於讓RL晚餐誤點,準備介紹 Sir J.M. Barrie。發現電影之原作:

Why J. M. Barrie created Peter Pan.
J.M. Barrie 的介紹和電子檔,英國和日文都很豐富。

我們可以從更寬的視野看Sir J.M. Barrie在英國/蘇格蘭/世界文化的主要業績,參考下書所特別介紹的這些作家(這本書hc還沒讀過):
Jackie Wullschlager, Inventing Wonderland: The Lives and Fantasies of Lewis Carroll,
Edward Lear, JM Barrie, Kenneth Grahame, and A A Milne, 1996. 日本翻譯:『不思議の国をつくる:キャロル、リア、バリー、グレアム、ミルンの作品と生涯』
「…..文末始介绍J.M. Barrie一生写了38个剧本,其中以《可敬的克莱登》和《彼得潘》最有名。」

《可 敬的克莱登》就是The Admirable Crichton, J. M. Barrie在 1902的作品。(日本翻譯: 「天晴れクライトン」 (1902年初演)【天晴れ(あっぱれ) 意思: Bravo!/ Well done!・~な splendid; admirable; glorious.】 http://www.answers.com/topic/the-admirable-crichton-1?hl=crichton
要了解The Admirable Crichton作為類型人物,先要了解劇情/歷史。
The Admirable Crichton指「無所不能、面面俱到/俱佳的人」。

Peter Pan 為長不大的小孩。這成為商標。1960年代,美國流行一種通俗心理學TA,說法是人人的人格中都還有一CHILD要照顧……

2012年6月25日 星期一

Pandy (Monmouthshire) 雷蒙德·威廉斯 Queen Elizabeth in Northern Ireland

從雷蒙德·威廉斯傳記 1.少年時代 可以知道19-20世紀威爾斯邊境人的許多文化整合特色

政治與文學/ Culture and Society 1780 1950, KEY WORDS by...

他的家鄉 還沒有介紹的網頁雖然地圖上容易找出它來

Sorry, we do not have a URL for Pandy Village Website

Follow this link to register the Village website so that it appears here

Most villages like Pandy (Monmouthshire) are rural communities that consist of number of dwellings and possibly a few businesses like a local shop cum post office and a village pub (Public House). Not all villages are rural some that once were have been swallowed up by the expansion of a nearby town or city but have still retained the word village in their name and in the minds of those who reside in them.

英女王とIRA元司令官、会見へ 和平定着を象徴


Queen Elizabeth in Northern Ireland for two-day visit

The Queen and Prince Philip The Queen and Prince Philip attended a service to mark the Queen's 60-year reign
The Queen has attended a service of thanksgiving in Northern Ireland during a two-day visit as part of her Diamond Jubilee tour.
Thousands of people lined the streets to welcome the Queen and Prince Philip to Enniskillen, County Fermanagh on Tuesday.
They attended a service to mark the Queen's 60-year reign.
The royal flight was delayed for about an hour due to bad weather.
The Queen's itinerary will also include a meeting with former IRA leader and NI's Deputy First Minister Martin McGuinness.
NI Secretary Owen Paterson, who is accompanying Her Majesty during her trip, previously said her Stormont visit would have been "unthinkable" years ago.
The service of thanksgiving at St Macartin's Cathedral in Enniskillen was attended by more than 700 people including senior Protestant and Catholic clergy.
The Queen is wearing a Wedgwood blue crepe outfit by royal designer Angela Kelly, complemented by a shamrock diamond brooch.
The lesson has been read by First Minister Peter Robinson.
The Prayers of Intercession have been led by Reverend Ken Lindsay, President of the Methodist Church in Ireland, Catholic Primate of Ireland Sean Brady and the Right Reverend Dr Roy Patton Moderator of the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church in Ireland.
Crowd waving Union flags Thousands of people lined the streets to welcome the Queen
The sermon was delivered by the Most Reverend Alan Harper OBE, Archbishop of Armagh, who went on to pronounce The Blessing.
The Right Reverend John McDowell, led the Diamond Jubilee Prayer, which had been written at the Queen's direction by the Chapter of St. Paul's Cathedral for Her Majesty's Jubilee.
Enniskillen was the scene of one of the worst atrocities of the Troubles when an IRA bomb killed 11 people on Remembrance Sunday in 1987.
Twenty-five years on, the Queen will meet Sinn Fein's Mr McGuinness on day two of her visit, at an arts event in Belfast.
Ireland's head of state President Michael D Higgins and Stormont First Minister Peter Robinson will also be there.
In his first interview since the meeting with the Queen was announced, Mr McGuinness described it as "taking a risk for peace".
Visits by the Queen to Northern Ireland are normally kept secret until arrival.
This one has been officially announced in advance - a sign of the improved security situation - however, some protests are expected.
The two-day visit is the Queen's 20th trip to Northern Ireland.

Royal highlights

The Queen with a map of the UK

2012年6月24日 星期日

The Camelot Project




"King Arthur:" a drama in a prologue and four acts. By J. Comyns Carr. Lyceum Theatre, 12, January 1895. (Reviewed Jan. 19, 1895 in The Saturday Review by George Bernard Shaw.)

   Mr. Irving is to be congratulated on the impulse which has led him to exclaim, on this occasion, "Let us get rid of that insufferably ignorant specialist, the dramatist, and try whether something fresh cannot be done by a man equipped with all the culture of the age." It was an inevitable step in the movement which is bringing the stage more and more into contact with life. When I was young, the banquets on the stage were made by the property man: his goblets and pasties, and epergnes laden with grapes, regaled guests who walked off and on through illusory wainscoting simulated by the precarious perspective of the wings. The scene-painter built the rooms; the constumier made the dresses: the armour was made apparently by dipping the legs of the knights into a solution of salt of spangles and precipitating the metal on their calves by some electro-process; the leader of the band made the music; and the author wrote the verse and invented the law, the morals, the religion, the art, the jurisprudence, and whatever else might be needed in the abstract department of the play. Since then we have seen great changes. Real walls, ceilings, and doors are made by real carpenters; real tailors and dressmakers clothe the performers; real armourers harness them; and real musicians write the music and have it performed with full orchestral honours at the Crystal Palace and the Philharmonic. All that remains is to get a real poet to write the verse, a real philosopher to do the morals, a real divine to put in the religion, a real lawyer to adjust the law, and a real painter to design the pictorial effects. This is too much to achieve at one blow; but Mr. Irving made a brave step towards it when he resolved to get rid of the author and put in his place his dear old friend Comyns Carr as an encyclopedic gentleman well up to date in most of these matters. And Mr. Comyns Carr, of course, was at once able to tell him that there was an immense mass of artistic and poetic tradition, accumulated by generations of poets and painter, lying at hand all ready for exploitation by any experienced dealer with ingenuity and literary faculty enough to focus it in a stage entertainment. Such a man would have to know, for instance, that educated people have ceased to believe that architecture means "ruins by moonlight" (style, ecclesiastical Gothic); that the once fashionable admiration of the Renascence and "the old masters" of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries has been swept away by the growth of a genuine sense of the na�ve dignity and charm of thirteenth-century work, and a passionate affection of the exquisite beauty of fifteenth-century work, so that nowadays ten acres of Carracci, Giulio Romano, Guido, Domenichino, and Pietro di Cortona will not buy an inch of Botticelli, or Lippi, or John Bellini--no, not even with a few yards of Raphael thrown in; and that the whole rhetorical school in English literature, from Shakespeare to Byron, appears to us in our present mood only another side of the terrible degringolade from Michael Angelo to Canova and Thorwaldsen, all of the whose works would not now tempt us to part with a single fragment by Donatello, or even a pretty foundling baby by Della Robbia. And yet this, which is the real art culture of England to-day, is only dimly known to our dramatic authors as a momentary bygone craze out of which a couple of successful pieces, "Patience" and "The Colonel," made some money in their day. Mr. Comyns Carr knows better. He knows that Burne-Jones had made himself the greatest among English decorative painters by picking up the tradition of his art where Lippi left it, and utterly ignoring "their Raphaels, Correggios, and stuff." He knows that William Morris has made himself the greatest living master of the English language, both in prose and verse, by picking up the tradition of the literary art where Chaucer left it, and that Morris and Burne-Jones, close friends and co-operators in many a masterpiece, form the highest aristocracy of English art to-day. And he knows exactly how far their culture has spread and penetrated, and how much simply noble beauty of Romanesque architecture, what touching loveliness and delicate splendor of fifteenth-century Italian dresses and armour, what blue from the hills around Florence and what sunset gloom deepening into splendid black shadow from the horizons of Giorgione will be recognized with delight on the stage if they be well counterfeited there; also what stories we long to have as the subject of these deeply desired pictures. Foremost among such stories stands that of King Arthur, Lancelot, and Guinevere; and what Mr. Comyns Carr has done is to contrive a play in which we have our heart's wish, and see these figures come to life, and move through halls and colonnades that might have been raised by the master-builders of San Zeno or San Ambrogio, out into the eternal beauty of the woodland spring, acting their legend just as we know it, in just such vestures and against just such backgrounds of blue hill and fiery sunset. No mere dramatic author could have wrought this miracle. Mr. Comyns Carr has done it with ease, by simply knowing whom to send for. His long business experience as a man of art and letters, and the contact with artists and poets which it has involved, have equipped him completely for the work. In Mr. Irving's theatre, with Burne-Jones to design for him, Harker and Hawes Craven to paint for him, and Malory and Tennyson and many another on his bookshelves, he has put out his hand cleverly on a ready-made success, and tasted the joy of victory without the terror of battle.

   But how am I to praise this deed when my own art, the art of literature, is left shabby and ashamed amid the triumph of the arts of the painter and the actor? I sometime wonder where Mr. Irving will go when the dies--whether he will dare to claim, as a master artist, to walk where he may any day meet Shakespeare whom he has mutilated, Goethe whom he has travestied, and the nameless creator of the hero-king out of whose mouth he has uttered jobbing verses. For in poetry Mr. Comyns Carr is frankly a jobber and nothing else. There is one scene in the play in which Mr. Irving rises to the height of his art, and impersonates, with the noblest feeling, and the most sensitive refinement of execution, the King Arthur of all our imaginations in the moment when he learns that his wife loves his friend instead of himself. And all the time, whilst the voice, the gesture, the emotion expressed are those of the hero-king, the talk is the talk of an angry and jealous costermonger, exalted by the abject submission of the other parties to a transport of magnanimity in refraining from reviling his wife and punching her lover's head. I do not suppose that Mr. Irving said to Mr. Comyns Carr in so many words, "Write what trash you like: I'll play the real King Arthur over the head of your stuff"; but that was what it came to. And the end of it was that Mr. Comyns Carr was too much for Mr. Irving. When King Arthur, having broken down in an attempt to hit Lancelot with his sword, Guinevere grovelling on the floor with her head within an inch of his toes, and stood plainly conveying to the numerous bystanders that this was the proper position for a female who had forgotten herself so far as to prefer another man to him, one's gorge rose at the Tappertitian vulgarity and infamy of the thing; and it was a relief when the scene ended with a fine old Richard the Third effect of Arthur leading his mail-clad knights off to battle. That vision of a fine figure of a woman, torn with sobs and remorse, stretched at the feet of a nobly superior and deeply wronged lord of creation, is no doubt still as popular with the men whose sentimental vanity it flatters as it was in the days of the "Idylls of the King." But since then we have been learning that a woman is something more than a piece of sweetstuff to fatten a man's emotions; and our amateur King Arthurs are beginning to realize, with shocked surprise, that the more generous the race grows, the stronger becomes its disposition to bring them to their senses with a stinging dose of wholesome ridicule. Mr. Comyns Carr miscalculated the spirit of the age on this point and the result was that he dragged Mr. Irving down from the height of the loftiest passage in his acting to the abyss of the lowest depth of the dialogue.

   Whilst not sparing my protest against this unpardonable scene, I can hardly blame Mr. Comyns Carr for the touch of human frailty which made him reserve to himself the honour of providing the "book of the words" for Burne-Jones's picture-opera. No doubt, since Mr. Carr is no more a poet than I am, the consistent course would have been to call in Mr. William Morris to provide the verse. Perhaps, if Mr. Irving, in his black harness, with his visor down and Excalibur ready to hand and well in view, were to present himself at the Kelmscott Press fortified with a propitiatory appeal from the great painter, the poet might, without absolutely swearing, listen to a proposal that he should condescend to touch up those little rhymed acrostics in which Merlin utters his prophesies, leaving the blank verse padding to Mr. Comyns Carr. For the blank verse is at all events accurately metrical, a fact which distinguishes the author sharply from most modern dramatists. The ideas are second-hand, and are dovetailed into a coherent structure instead of developing into one another by any life of their own; but they are sometimes very well chosen; and Mr. Carr is often guided to his choice of them by the strength and sincerity of their effect on his own feelings. At such moments, if he does not create, he reflects so well, and sometimes reflects such fine rays too, that one gladly admits that there are men whose originality might have been worse than his receptivity. There are excellent moments in the love scenes; indeed, Lancelot's confession of his love to Guinevere all but earns for the author the poet's privilege of having his chain tested by it strongest link.

   The only great bit of acting in the piece is that passage of Mr. Irving's to which I have already alluded--a masterly fulfillment of the promise of one or two quiet but eloquent touches in his scene with Guinevere in the second act. Popularly speaking, Mr. Forbes Robertson as Lancelot is the hero of the piece. He has a beautiful costume, mostly of plate-armour of Burne-Jonesian design; and he wears it beautifully, like a fifteenth-century St. George, the spiritual, interesting face completing a rarely attractive living picture. He was more than applauded on his entrance; he was positively adored. His voice is an organ with only one stop on it; to the musician it suggests a clarionet in A, played only in the chalumeau register; but then the chalumeau, sympathetically sounded, has a richly melancholy and noble effect. The one tune he had to play throughout suited it perfectly: its subdued passion, both in love and devotion, affected the house deeply; and the crowning moment of the drama for most of those present was his clasping of Guinevere's waist as he knelt at her feet when she intoxicated him by answering his confession with her own. As to Miss Ellen Terry, it was the old story, a born actress of real women's parts condemned to figure as a mere artist's model in costume plays which, form the woman's point of view, are foolish flatteries written by gentlemen for gentlemen. It is pathetic to see Miss Terry snatching at some fleeting touch of nature in her part, and playing it not only to perfection, but often with a parting caress that brings it beyond that for an instant as she relinquishes, very loth, and passes on to the next length of arid sham-feminine twaddle in blank verse, which she pumps out in little rhythmic strokes in a desperate and all too obvious effort to make music of it. I should prove myself void of the true critic's passion if I could pass with polite commonplace over what seems to me a heartless waste of an exquisite talent. What a theatre for a woman of genius to be attached to! Obsolete tomfooleries like "Robert Macaire," school-girl charades like "Nance Oldfeld," blank verse by Wills, Comyns Carr, and Calmour, with intervals of hashed Shakespeare; and all the time a stream of splendid women's parts pouring from the Ibsen volcano and minor craters, and being snapped up by the rising generation. Strange, under these circumstances, that it is Mr. Irving and not Miss Terry who feels the want of a municipal theatre. He has certainly done his best to make everyone else feel it.

   The rest of the acting is the merest stock company routine, there being only three real parts in the play. Sir Arthur Sullivan (who, in the playbill, drops his knighthood whilst Burne-Jones parades his baronetcy) sweetens the sentiment of the scenes here and there by penn'orths of orchestral sugarstick, for which the dramatic critics, in their soft-eared innocence, praise him above Wagner. The overture and the vocal pieces are pretty specimens of his best late work. Some awkwardness in the construction of the play towards the end has led the stage manager into a couple of absurdities. For instance, when the body of Elaine is done with, it should be taken off the stage and not put in the corner like a portmanteau at a railway station. I do not know what is supposed to happen in the last act--whether Guinevere is alive or a ghost when she comes in at Arthur's death (I understood she was being burnt behind the scenes), or what becomes of Lancelot and Mordred, or who on earth the two gentlemen are who come in successively to interview the dying Arthur, or why the funeral barge should leave Mr. Irving lying on the stage and bear off to bliss an imposter with a strikingly different nose. In fact I understood nothing that happened after the sudden blossoming out of Arthur into Lohengrin, Guinevere into Elsa, Mordred into Telramund, and Morgan la Fey into Ortuda in the combat scene, in which, by the way, Mr. Comyns Carr kills the wrong man, probably from having read Wagner carelessly. But I certainly think something might be done to relieve the shock of the whole court suddenly bolting and leaving the mortally wounded King floundering on the floor without a soul to look after him. These trifles are mere specks of dust on a splendid picture; but they could easily be brushed off.



www.lib.rochester.edu/camelot/ - Cached
2 Apr 2012 – University of Rochester database of texts, images and bibliographies concerned with the legends of King Arthur.

The camelot project: main menu

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King Arthur

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Tristan and Isolt

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Holy Grail

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2012年6月21日 星期四

Plans for O-level-style exams to replace GCSEs

英國的中學考試制度有點複雜  不過這也是了解該國的教改之必備知識

Plans for O-level-style exams to replace GCSEs

Michael Gove: ''We'd like to see every student in this country able to take world class qualifications''

Related Stories

England's exam system needs further changes, Education Secretary Michael Gove has told MPs, amid reports of plans to return to O-level style exams.
Mr Gove is reported to be preparing to scrap GCSEs for England from autumn 2014, but did not confirm any details.
He was summoned to the Commons to answer urgent questions after details were leaked to the Daily Mail.
Mr Gove said action was needed because the current exam system was letting children down.
"Children are working harder than ever but we are hearing that the system is not working for them," he said.
"We want to tackle the culture of competitive dumbing down."
He said rigor needed to be restored to the system if England was to keep pace with educational improvements in some other countries.
Documents setting out the proposals for change were leaked to the Daily Mail and government sources told the BBC they were broadly correct.
The ideas, if introduced, would amount to the biggest change to the exams system for a generation. They are going to be put out for consultation.


This leak seems to have taken officials at the Department for Education by surprise.
The timing is certainly not good, with tens of thousands of teenagers in the final days of their GCSE and A-level exams catching headlines suggesting the government does not think their exams are tough enough.
If ministers decide to go ahead with the proposals and the time-scale given, they cannot afford to hang around. The design and approval of the new exams will take time and that will come after the consultation planned for the autumn.
In Wales and Northern Ireland, the devolved governments will need to decide whether to stay in step with the proposed changes. They could continue to let their schools choose GCSE qualifications from the exam boards, which are private companies.
The plan is for students to begin studying what the leaked document says will be "tougher" O-level style exams in English, maths and the sciences from September 2014. They would take their exams in 2016.
So, pupils starting their GCSE courses in September 2013 could be the last to take them.
Less academic pupils would sit a different "more straightforward" exam, like the old CSE.
Labour's education spokesman Kevin Brennan told Mr Gove such a move would take the exam system "back to the 1950s".
"GCSEs may well need improving, but a two-tier exam system which divides children into winners and losers at 14 is not the answer," he said.
The Liberal Democrats are unhappy about the plans too, saying they appear to set too low an aspiration for young people.
And a senior figure has said changing the secondary exams system within two years could "lead to massive upheaval".
Curriculum scrapped? GCSEs replaced O-levels and CSEs in the mid-1980s. Under the previous system, the more academic teenagers took O-levels while others took CSEs (Certificates of Secondary Education).
News of the plans come as tens of thousands of teenagers across England, Wales and Northern Ireland finish taking their GCSE and A-level exams.
Shadow Schools Minister Kevin Brennan: ''Michael Gove is in danger of completely ripping up a system that actually works''
The leaked document also apparently shows plans for the national curriculum at secondary level to be scrapped altogether, so that heads would decide what pupils should study.
Already, the new academy schools, which are state-funded but semi-independent, do not have to follow the national curriculum.
And the government is said to be planning to scrap the traditional benchmark on which secondary schools in England are measured - the number of pupils getting five good GCSEs (grades A* to C), including maths and English.
Schools would continue to be measured on the government's new benchmark - the English Baccalaureate - which counts how many pupils in a school have good GCSEs in English, maths, two sciences, geography, history and a foreign language.
Another change suggested is that one exam board would be chosen to set the O-level style papers for English, maths and science - with all pupils taking the same exam.
Currently, six exam boards design GCSEs and schools choose which board to use.
It is this situation which Mr Gove believes has led to a "race to the bottom".
He told MPs: "We want to tackle the culture of competitive dumbing-down, by making sure that exam boards cannot compete with each other on the basis of how easy their exams are".
That view has always been roundly rejected by the exam boards and by the previous Labour government.
Critics of the existing system point to the year-on-year rises in the numbers of pupils achieving top grades as a sign that they have become easier, but supporters say teenagers are working harder than ever and teachers are getting better at preparing them for exams.
The government had already announced that it wanted to shake up GCSEs by returning to the system where most exams were taken after two years, rather than in modules, and those changes were already planned to affect pupils beginning their GCSE studies this autumn.
'Two-tier system' The big teaching unions have echoed Mr Brennan's warnings about a two-tier system.
Russell Hobby, the general secretary of the National Association of Head Teachers, welcomed the move towards having a single exam board per subject, which he said was sensible and would "remove a lot of concerns about the system".
"But a move to a two-tier system does not sound a good step forward," he added, saying such a change would mean choices about children's futures being taken at too young an age.
As control of education in the UK is devolved, Mr Gove's plans are for England only. It would be up to Wales and Northern Ireland to decide whether to follow suit. In Scotland, pupils take Standard Grades and Highers rather than GCSEs and A-levels.
The Education Minister for Wales, Leighton Andrews, has said Wales will not return to O-level-style exams.

2012年6月20日 星期三

Sir Nikolaus Pevsner

此文初稿以Wikipedia 的Sir Nikolaus Pevsner 條目的英文和日文版本為主(機械翻譯補助),再加上我自己的一些補充。

Sir Nikolaus Bernhard Leon Pevsner, CBE, FBA (30 January 1902 – 18 August 1983), was a German-born British scholar of history of art and, especially, of history of architecture. He is best known for his 46-volume series of county-by-county guides, The Buildings of England (1951–74), often simply referred to as "Pevsner".

 尼古勞斯伯恩哈德·萊昂佩夫斯納爵士,CBE,FBA(1902年1月30日 - 1983年8月18日),出生於德國而歸化英國藝術史學者,特別精通於建築史。他最有名的是46卷英國的建築物導遊系列( 依各郡別詳下文《英格蘭的建物》《蘇格蘭的建物》 《威爾斯的建物》 《愛爾蘭的建物》,初稿(1951年至1974年),這些通常簡稱為“佩夫斯納”。

本文 內容類別 Contents

1 Life
    2第二次世界大戰2 Second World War
    3戰後3 Post-war
    4著名的思想和理論4 Notable ideas and theories
    5 著作5 Publications
    6參考6 References
    7進一步閱讀7 Further reading
        7.1論文7.1 Papers
    8外部鏈接8 External links


The son of a Jewish fur trader, Nikolaus Pevsner was born in Leipzig, Saxony. He studied art history at the Universities of Leipzig, Munich, Berlin, and Frankfurt/Main, completing a PhD in 1924 on the baroque merchant houses of Leipzig.[1] In 1923 he married Carola ('Lola') Kurlbaum, the daughter of distinguished Leipzig lawyer Alfred Kurlbaum. He worked as an assistant keeper at the Dresden Gallery (1924–28). During this period he became interested in establishing the supremacy of German modernist architecture after visiting Le Corbusier's Pavillon de l'Esprit Nouveau at the Paris Exhibition of 1925.[2] In 1928 he contributed the volume on Italian baroque painting to the Handbuch der Kunstwissenschaft, a multi-volume series providing an overview of the history of European art. He taught at the University of Göttingen (1929–33), offering a specialist course on English art and architecture.

According to Stephen Games's biography and an earlier summary in Games's introduction to Pevsner on Art and Architecture: the Radio Talks,[2][3] Pevsner welcomed many of the economic and cultural policies of the early Hitler regime, but was caught up in the ban on Jews being employed by the Nazi state shortly after Hitler's accession to power and was required to step down from Göttingen in autumn 1933. Later that year he moved to England. His first post was an eighteen-month research fellowship at the University of Birmingham, found for him by friends in Birmingham and partly funded by the Academic Assistance Council.[4] A study of the role of the designer in the industrial process, the research produced a generally critical account of design standards in Britain which he published as An Enquiry into Industrial Art in England (Cambridge University Press, 1937). He was subsequently employed as a buyer of modern textiles, glass and ceramics for the Gordon Russell furniture showrooms in London.
By this time he had also completed Pioneers of the Modern Movement: from William Morris to Walter Gropius, his influential account of the pre-history of what he saw as Walter Gropius's dominance of contemporary design. Pioneers ardently championed Gropius's first two buildings (both pre-First World War) on the grounds that they summed up all the essential goals of twentieth-century architecture; in England, however, it was widely taken to be the history of England's contribution to international modernism, and a manifesto for Bauhaus (i.e. Weimar) modernism, which it was not. This false view of it has long been institutionalised and almost as long been challenged.[citation needed] In spite of that, the book remains an important point of reference in the teaching of the history of modern design, and helped lay the foundation of Pevsner's career in England as an architectural historian. Since its first publication by Faber & Faber in 1936, it has gone through several editions and been translated into many languages. The English-language edition has also been renamed Pioneers of Modern Design.


尼古勞斯佩夫斯納出生於萊比錫,薩克森州,為猶太皮草商的兒子。他曾就讀於萊比錫,慕尼黑,柏林,法蘭克福( Main 河)大學,1924完成在萊比巴洛克式商人房子,取得藝術史博士學位。[1] 1923年,他萊比錫律師Alfred Kurlbaum的女兒 Carola ('Lola“ 又稱為"蘿拉') Kurlbaum 結婚他曾在德累斯頓畫廊當自願服務助理館員(1924年至1928年)。在此期間,他在1925年參訪巴黎展覽會上的柯布西耶作品Pavillon de l'Esprit Nouveau 之後興致勃勃地想建立德國現代主義建築為當代之最的學說。[2]在1928年,他歐洲藝術史概觀的多卷系列《藝研究手冊Handbuch DER Kunstwissenschaft》中意大利巴洛克繪畫他曾任教於哥廷根大學(1929年至1933年),為藝術和建築專家提供了專業的英語課程。 Stephen Games撰寫的傳記和1他更早的佩夫斯納藝術與建築:電台廣播》的導論之摘要 ,佩夫斯納歡迎討很多希特勒政早期的經濟和文化政策,[2] [3],但在希特勒取得權力後不久頒發的聘用止猶太人之禁令之後被停播,1933年秋季他被強迫從強哥廷根離職。同一年晚些時候,他移居到英國。

 他的第一個職位在英國伯明翰大學研究18個月筆研究獎學金,部分歸功於他在伯明翰的朋友的張羅,部分由英國的學術援助委員會的基金所資助。[4] 研究設計師在工業過程中的作用,此一研究成果一般而重要,成為英國的設計標準,而他將之出版為英國工業藝術的一番探究 An Enquiry into Industrial Art in England (劍橋大學出版社,1937)

隨後,他被倫敦的Gordon Russell 家具展廳聘為現代的紡織品,玻璃和陶瓷的採購代理。這個時候,他還完成了有影響力的《現代運動的先驅者:從威廉·莫里斯到格羅皮烏斯 Pioneers of the Modern Movement: from William Morris to Walter Gropius,此書說明他認為的當代設計的領導者 Walter Gropius 在發跡之前的設計發展史 《現代運動的先驅者:從威廉·莫里斯到格羅皮烏斯熱烈地強調格羅皮烏斯的2棟一戰前的建築,他認為它們總結出了所有的二十世紀建築的基本目標;然而,在英國,人們普遍認為他們才是國際的現代主義之貢獻者,而不是包豪斯(在魏瑪)現代主義宣言。此種現代主義發源於英國的看法,早已在英國制度化,雖然懷疑之,不以為然的人也不少。[需要引文出處] 儘管如此,這本書仍然是現代設計史教學的重要參考文獻,並幫助佩夫斯納成為英國的專業建築歷史學家的生涯奠定基礎。該書自1936年首次由 Faber & Fabe公司出版以來,已多次再版,被譯成多種文字。英文版的書名也改成《現代設計的先驅》。

Second World War

In 1940, Pevsner was interned as an enemy alien in Huyton, Liverpool, despite having been included in the Nazi Black Book as hostile to the Hitler regime. He was released after three months on the intervention of, among others, Frank Pick, then Director-General of the Ministry of Information. He spent some time in the months after the Blitz clearing bomb debris, and wrote reviews and art criticism for the Ministry of Information's Die Zeitung, an anti-Nazi publication for Germans living in England. He also completed for Penguin Books the Pelican paperback An Outline of European Architecture, which he had begun to develop while in internment. Outline would eventually go into seven editions, be translated into sixteen languages, and sell more than half a million copies.
In 1942 Pevsner finally secured two regular positions. From 1936 onwards he had been a frequent contributor to the Architectural Review and from 1943 to 1945 he stood in as its acting editor while the regular editor J.M. Richards was on active service. Under the AR's influence, Pevsner's approach to modern architecture became more complex and more moderate.[5] Early signs of a lifelong interest in Victorian architecture, also influenced by the Architectural Review, appeared in a series written under the pseudonym of "Peter F.R. Donner": Pevsner's "Treasure Hunts" guided readers down selected London streets, pointing out architectural treasures of the nineteenth century. He was also closely involved with the Review's proprietor, Hubert de Cronin Hastings,[6] in evolving the magazine's theories on Picturesque planning.[7]
In 1942 Pevsner was also appointed a part-time lecturer at Birkbeck, University of London; he would eventually retire from the college in 1969 as its first professor of art history. He lectured at Cambridge for almost thirty years, having been Slade professor there for a record six years from 1949 to 1955, and would also hold the Slade professorship at Oxford in 1968.
Framing all this was his career as a writer and editor. After moving to England, Pevsner had found that the study of architectural history had little status in academic circles, and the amount of information available, especially to travellers wanting to inform themselves about the architecture of a particular district, was limited. Invited by Allen Lane, founder of Penguin Books, for whom he had written his Outline and also edited the King Penguin series,[8] to suggest ideas for future publications, he proposed a series of comprehensive county guides to rectify this shortcoming. Work on the Buildings of England series began in 1945, and the first volume was published in 1951. Pevsner wrote 32 of the books himself and 10 with collaborators, with a further 4 of the original series written by others. Since his death, work has continued on the series, which has been extended to cover the rest of the United Kingdom, under the title Pevsner Architectural Guides (now published by Yale University Press).[9] As well as The Buildings of England, Pevsner also proposed to Penguin the Pelican History of Art series (1953– ), a multi-volume survey on the model of the German Handbuch der Kunstwissenschaft, which he would himself edit. Many individual volumes are regarded as classics.

在1940年,佩夫斯納已列為納粹希特勒政權的敵對者的黑皮書Black Book  仍被以敵國人在利物浦   Huyton島隔離起來三個月後,他被釋放這是多方的干預結果,其中包括弗蘭克·匹克,當時情報部的局長。在德國的倫敦大突擊轟炸之後幾個月花些時間幫助清理炸後殘局,並為情報部為居英德國人出版的反納粹出版物 Die Zeitung 寫些評論文章他還完成了《歐州建築史大綱》(An Outline of European Architecture)由企鵝圖書公司的鵜鶘版平裝書出版,這本書是他在被隔離時開始構思的。這本書後來出版七個版本,被翻譯成16種語言,銷售量超過50萬冊。



框架這一切是他作為一個作家和編輯的職業生涯。佩夫斯納轉移到英格蘭後,已發現的建築史的研究,很少有學術界的地位,提供的信息量,特別是旅客想了解某一地區的建築,是有限的。由企鵝出版社創始人艾倫巷,邀請,其中他寫了他的大綱,還編輯了企鵝國王系列,[8]建議未來出版物的想法,他提出了一系列全面的縣指導,以糾正這個缺點。英格蘭系列建築物上的工作始於1945年,並於1951年出版第一冊。佩夫斯納與合作者寫了32自己的書籍和10日,一個由別人寫的原系列的另外4。自從他死後,繼續工作系列,已經擴展到覆蓋英國的其餘部分的標題下佩夫斯納建築指南,(現在由耶魯大學出版社出版)。[9]以及英國的建築物,佩夫斯納也提出了企鵝系列鵜鶘藝術史(1953 - ),Handbuch DER Kunstwissenschaft德國模式對多卷調查,他將自己編輯。許多個別卷被視為經典。


In 1946 Pevsner made the first of several broadcasts on the BBC Third Programme, presenting nine talks in all up to 1950, examining painters and European art eras. By 1977 he had presented 78 talks for the BBC including the Reith Lectures in 1955 – a series of six broadcasts, titled The Englishness of English Art,[10] for which he explored the qualities of art which he regarded as particularly English, and what they said about the English national character.[11] His A.W. Mellon Lectures in Fine Art at the National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C., were published in 1976 as A History of Building Types.

Pevsner was a founding member in 1957 of The Victorian Society, the national charity for the study and protection of Victorian and Edwardian architecture and other arts. In 1964 he was invited to become its chairman, and steered it through its formative years, fighting alongside John Betjeman, Hugh Casson and others to save houses, churches, railway stations and other monuments of the Victorian age. He served for ten years (1960–70) as a member of the National Advisory Council on Art Education (or Coldstream Committee), campaigning for art history to be a compulsory element in the curriculum of art schools. He was elected a Fellow of the British Academy in 1965 and awarded the Gold Medal of the Royal Institute of British Architects in 1967. Having assumed British citizenship in 1946, Pevsner was awarded a CBE in 1953 and was knighted in 1969 'for services to art and architecture'.

Lola Pevsner died in 1963. Pevsner himself died in London in August 1983 and his memorial service was held at the Church of Christ the King, Bloomsbury the following December, with the memorial address being given by Alec Clifton-Taylor, a friend of fifty years. He is buried in the churchyard of St Peter, Clyffe Pypard in Wiltshire.


1946年佩夫斯納開始在BBC第三套節目廣播,談論畫家和歐洲藝術時代,到1950年,他已到BBC談過九次。到1977年他在BBC作過78次廣播包括在1955年Reith講座,它 六次系列廣播節目題為The Englishness of English Art 英國藝術的獨特性", 他探討那些藝術素質最富英國民族特色,以及它們表現出什麼英國性格。他在華盛頓的國家美術館的A.W. Mellon 藝術史講座的演講1976年出版,書名為 A History of Building Types 一部建築類型史

佩夫斯納為維多利亞時代學會的創始成員(1957)會為全國慈善機構,旨在研究並保護維多利亞時愛德華時期的建築其他藝術。1964年,他受邀該會董事長帶領它渡過成長期,與約翰 Betjeman休·卡森其他人並肩戰鬥以拯救維多利亞時代的許多房屋,教堂,火車站其他紀念碑為受保護的古蹟擔任過十年的全國藝術教育科爾德斯特里姆委員會諮詢委員會成員1960至1970年,鼓吹藝術史為各藝術學校必修課程1965年他被選為英國科學院院士在1967年獲得英國皇家建築師學會的金獎佩夫斯納1946年取得英國公民身份1953年以他對藝術和建築服務而被授予CBE於1969年封爵

夫人蘿拉 佩夫斯納於1963年去世佩夫斯納1983年8月逝世於倫敦 他的紀念追悼會在同年的12布盧姆斯伯的基督國王教會舉行,由其五十多年的老友亞歷克·克利夫頓 - 泰勒發表
紀念演說。他被安葬威爾特郡Clyffe Pypard聖彼得教堂的墓地

Notable ideas and theories

  • "A bicycle shed is a building; Lincoln Cathedral is a piece of architecture. Nearly everything that encloses space on a scale sufficient for a human being to move in is a building; the term architecture applies only to buildings designed with a view to aesthetic appeal." From An Outline of European Architecture, 1943.
  • Pevsner also described the three ways aesthetic appeal could manifest itself in architecture: in a building's façade, the material volumes, or the interior.

一個自行車棚是建物;而林肯大教堂則是一棟建築幾乎所規模足以讓人移動的封閉空間都是建築物。 該建物的設計具有審美情趣的,才足以用"建築"這字眼。"歐州建築史大綱》(An Outline of European Architecture) 第一段


サー・ニコラウス・ペヴズナー(Sir Nikolaus Pevsner, 1902年1月30日 - 1983年8月18日)はドイツ出身のイギリスの美術史家。姓はペフスナーとの表記もある。イギリス・ペリカンブック社にて雑誌・叢書の監修・執筆を数多く行い、モダンデザイン分野の歴史理論的骨格を築いた。

生涯 [編集]

1953年からの "Pelican History of Art" シリーズ発行を主幹した。

伝記の案内 [編集] 黑體字似表示有日譯本  黃體字表示我有/讀過

An Enquiry into Industrial Art in England (Cambridge University Press, 1937).
  • Academies of Art, Past and Present (1940)
  • An Outline of European Architecture (1942/3)
  • Pioneers of Modern Design (1949; originally published in 1936 under the title Pioneers of the Modern Movement)
  • The Buildings of England (1951-74)
  • The Englishness of English Art (1956)
  • The Sources of Modern Architecture and Design (1968)
  • "'A History of Building Types" (1976)


  • Academies of Art, Past and Present (1940)
  • An Outline of European Architecture (1943)
  • The Leaves Of Southwell (King Penguin series), Penguin, 1945此書似為日文所忽略
  • Pioneers of Modern Design (1949; originally published in 1936 under the title Pioneers of the Modern Movement)
  • The Buildings of England (1951–74) 詳下特別類.
  • The Englishness of English Art (1955, BBC Reith Lectures)
  • The Englishness of English Art (1956, print edition)
  • The Sources of Modern Architecture and Design (1968)
  • A History of Building Types (1976)



著作 [編集]

  • "Barockmalerei in dem romanischen Ländern" (1928年)
  • "High Victorian design" (1951年)
  • "Die italienische Malerei vom Ende der Renaissance bis zum ausgehenden Rokoko" (1928-32年)
  • "Dictionary of architecture" (1966年) (J. Fleming, H, Honour と共著)

イギリスの建築物について [編集]The Buildings of England (1951–74)


  • Bath (2003) (Michael Forsyth)
  • Bedfordshire, Huntingdon & Peterborough (1968)
  • Berkshire (1966)
  • Buckinghamshire (1960;1994) (rev. Elizabeth Williamson)
  • Cambridgeshire (1954;1970)
  • Cheshire (1971) (with Edward Hubbard)
  • Cornwall (1951;1970)
  • County Durham (1953;1983) (rev. Elizabeth Williamson)
  • Cumberland & Westmorland (1967)
  • Derbyshire (1953;1978) (rev. Elizabeth Williamson)
  • Devon (1952;1989)
  • Dorset (1972) (with John Newman)
  • Essex (1954;1965) (rev. Enid Radcliffe)
  • Gloucestershire: The Cotswolds (1970;1999) (David Verey, rev. Alan Brooks)
  • Gloucestershire: The Vale & Forest of Dean (2002) (David Verey, rev. Alan Brooks)
  • Hampshire & The Isle of Wight (1967) (with David Lloyd)
  • Herefordshire (1963)
  • Hertfordshire (1953;1977) (rev. Bridget Cherry)
  • Kent: North East & East (1969;1983) (John Newman)
  • Kent: West & the Weald (1969;1976) (John Newman)
  • Lancashire: Manchester & the South-East (2004) ISBN 0300105835 (with Clare Hartwell and Matthew Hyde)
  • North Lancashire (1969)
  • South Lancashire (1969)
  • Leicestershire & Rutland (1960;1984) (rev. Elizabeth Williamson)
  • Lincolnshire (1964;1989) (with John Harris, rev. Nicholas Antram)
  • Liverpool (2003) (Joseph Sharples)
  • London 1: The City of London (1997) ISBN 0300096240 (with Simon Bradley)
  • London 2: South (1983) ISBN 0300096518 (with Bridget Cherry)
  • London 3: North-West (1991) ISBN 0300096526 (with Bridget Cherry)
  • London 4: North (1998) ISBN 0300096534 (with Bridget Cherry)
  • London 5: East (2004) ISBN 0300107013 (with Bridget Cherry and Charles O'Brien)
  • London 6: Westminster (2003) ISBN 0300095953 (with Simon Bradley)
  • London City Churches (1998) (Simon Bradley)
  • Manchester (2001) ISBN 0300096666 (Clare Hartwell)
  • Norfolk 1: Norwich & North East (1962;1997) (rev. Bill Wilson)
  • Norfolk 2: South & West (1962;1999) (rev. Bill Wilson)
  • Northamptonshire (1961;1973) (rev. Bridget Cherry)
  • Northumberland (1957;1992) (with Ian A. Richmond, rev. John Grundy, Grace McCombie, Peter Ryder and Humphrey Welfare)
  • Nottinghamshire (1951;1979) (rev. Elizabeth Williamson)
  • Oxfordshire (1974) (with Jennifer Sherwood)
  • Shropshire (1958)
  • Somerset: North & Bristol (1958)
  • Somerset: South & West (1958)
  • Staffordshire (1974)
  • Suffolk (1961;1974) (rev. Enid Radcliffe)
  • Surrey (1962;1971) (with Ian Nairn, rev. Bridget Cherry)
  • Sussex (1965) (with Ian Nairn)
  • Warwickshire (1966) (with Alexandra Wedgwood)
  • Wiltshire (1963;1971) (rev. Bridget Cherry)
  • Worcestershire (1968)
  • Yorkshire: The North Riding (1966)
  • Yorkshire: The West Riding (1959;1967) (rev. Enid Radcliffe)
  • Yorkshire: York & East Riding (1972;1995) (rev. David Neave)

スコットランドの建築について [編集]


The series continued under Pevsner's name into Scotland. The series is not yet complete.
  • Aberdeenshire and North-East (in preparation)
  • Argyll and Bute (2000) ISBN 0300096704 (Frank Arneil Walker)
  • Ayrshire (in preparation)
  • Borders (2005) ISBN 0300107021 (Kitty Cruft, John Dunbar and Richard Fawcett)
  • Dumfries and Galloway (1996) (ISBN 0300096712) (John Gifford)
  • Dundee and Angus (in preparation)
  • Edinburgh (1984) ISBN 0300096720 (John Gifford, Colin McWilliam and David Walker)
  • Fife (1988) ISBN 0300096739 (John Gifford)
  • Glasgow (1990) ISBN 0300096747 (Elizabeth Williamson, Anne Riches and Malcolm Higgs)
  • Highlands and Islands (1992) ISBN 0300096259 (John Gifford)
  • Lothian, except Edinburgh (1978) (ISBN 0300096267 (Colin McWilliam)
  • Perth and Kinross (in preparation)
  • Renfrewshire and Lanarkshire (in preparation)
  • Stirling and Central Scotland (2002) ISBN 0300095945 (John Gifford and Frank Arneil Walker)

ウェールズの建築について [編集]


アイルランドの建築について [編集]


  • Dublin 「ダブリン」 (2005) (Christine Casey)
  • North-West Ulster: the Counties of Londonderry, Donegal, Fermanagh & Tyrone (1979) ISBN 0-300-09667-4 (Alistair Rowan)
  • North Leinster 「北レンスター」 (1993) ISBN 0-300-09668-2 (Alistair Rowan and Christine Casey)

Pevsner on art and architecture
Pevsner on art and architecture