2011年10月30日 星期日

U.K. Touts Its Cybersecurity Cred

U.K. Touts Its Cybersecurity Cred
While most governments have focused their response to cyberthreats on the military and national infrastructure, Britain also is focusing on ordinary business, touting Internet security as a competitive advantage.

2011年10月28日 星期五

Girls equal in British throne succession

BBC News - David Cameron proposes changes to royal succession

Girls equal in British throne succession

The Duke and Duchess of Cambridge If Prince William and Kate had a daughter first, she would take precedence over younger brothers

Related Stories

Sons and daughters of any future UK monarch will have equal right to the throne, after Commonwealth leaders agreed to change succession laws.

The leaders of the 16 Commonwealth countries where the Queen is head of state unanimously approved the changes at a summit in Perth, Australia.

It means a first-born daughter of the Duke and Duchess of Cambridge would take precedence over younger brothers.

The ban on the monarch being married to a Roman Catholic was also lifted.

Under the old succession laws, dating back more than 300 years, the heir to the throne is the first-born son of the monarch. Only when there are no sons, as in the case of the Queen's father George VI, does the crown pass to the eldest daughter.

The succession changes will require a raft of historic legislation to be amended, including the 1701 Act of Settlement, the 1689 Bill of Rights and the Royal Marriages Act 1772.

The change to the Royal Marriages Act will end a position where every descendant of George II is legally required to seek the consent of the monarch before marrying.

In future, the requirement is expected to be limited to a small number of the sovereign's close relatives.


Equal rights for women in the British Monarchy? It's quite a change. The new rules will reverse 300 years of tradition, custom and law, so it's a big royal deal.

There have been at least 11 attempts to change the passage of succession down the years, but they've never got anywhere. Now, with the arrival of Kate and William on the public stage, a sense of urgency has overtaken the drag of inertia.

The leaders of the Commonwealth have, like David Cameron, recognised this and so decided to act, using Perth to give birth to these royal reforms.

The other modification, allowing future monarchs to marry Catholics, is just as radical, removing an anti-Catholic bias at the heart of the monarchy.

Will these changes make a difference? Potentially, yes, particularly the daughter/son succession one, especially if William and Kate's first-born is a girl. She could become queen and thereby alter the course of British history.

Announcing the succession changes, Prime Minister David Cameron said they would apply to descendents of the Prince of Wales. They will not be applied retrospectively.

"Put simply, if the Duke and Duchess of Cambridge were to have a little girl, that girl would one day be our queen," he said.

"The idea that a younger son should become monarch instead of an elder daughter simply because he is a man, or that a future monarch can marry someone of any faith except a Catholic - this way of thinking is at odds with the modern countries that we have become."

Australia's Prime Minister Julia Gillard said it was an extraordinary moment: "I'm very enthusiastic about it. You would expect the first Australian woman prime minister to be very enthusiastic about a change which equals equality for women in a new area."

She said the changes appeared to be straightforward. "But just because they seem straightforward to our modern minds doesn't mean that we should underestimate their historical significance, changing as they will for all time the way in which the monarchy works and changing its history."

But the campaign group Republic - which wants an elected head of state in Britain - said "nothing of substance" had been changed.

"The monarchy discriminates against every man, woman and child who isn't born into the Windsor family. To suggest that this has anything to do with equality is utterly absurd," spokesman Graham Smith said.

Queen's speech

On scrapping the ban on future monarchs marrying Roman Catholics, Mr Cameron said: "Let me be clear, the monarch must be in communion with the Church of England because he or she is the head of that Church. But it is simply wrong they should be denied the chance to marry a Catholic if they wish to do so. After all, they are already quite free to marry someone of any other faith."

David Cameron: ''The idea a younger son should become monarch instead of an elder daughter simply because he's a man... is at odds with the modern countries we have become''

The Roman Catholic Archbishop of Westminster, Vincent Nichols, said the elimination of the "unjust discrimination" against Catholics would be widely welcomed.

"At the same time I fully recognise the importance of the position of the established church [the Church of England] in protecting and fostering the role of faith in our society today," he said.

Scotland's First Minister Alex Salmond also welcomed the lifting of the ban but said it was "deeply disappointing" that Roman Catholics were still unable to ascend to the throne.

"It surely would have been possible to find a mechanism which would have protected the status of the Church of England without keeping in place an unjustifiable barrier on the grounds of religion in terms of the monarchy," he said.

"It is a missed opportunity not to ensure equality of all faiths when it comes to the issue of who can be head of state."

In her opening speech to the summit, the Queen did not directly mention the royal succession laws, but said women should have a greater role in society.

"It encourages us to find ways to show girls and women to play their full part," she said.

Previous attempts

The BBC's royal correspondent, Nicholas Witchell, said this was a hint that the Queen herself backed the change.

The Queen will celebrate her Diamond Jubilee next year and there are already two generations of kings-in-waiting - Prince Charles and his son Prince William.

In January 2011, Labour MP Keith Vaz tabled a Succession to the Crown Bill in the Commons to end gender discrimination in the succession to the throne.

He said his bill - due for its second reading on 25 November - could be used to introduce the reforms announced in Perth.

"As a society that values gender equality so highly, this is a long overdue," he said. "We will now have modern laws that fit our modern monarchy."

The royal author Robert Hardman said there had been 11 attempts in recent years by individual MPs and peers to change the succession laws.

The laws are not a matter for the 54-nation Commonwealth as a whole, only for the 16 countries which have the Queen as their head of state, known as realms.

These are Britain, Australia, New Zealand, Canada, Jamaica, Antigua and Barbuda, Belize, Papua New Guinea, St Christopher and Nevis, St Vincent and the Grenadines, Tuvalu, Barbados, Grenada, Solomon Islands, St Lucia and the Bahamas.

Chogm summit

Mr Cameron said the realms would work to implement the changes but that for historic reasons the UK would have to publish its legislation first.

The necessary changes to laws will be introduced in the next session of Parliament and New Zealand will lead a working group co-ordinating the measures across the other nations.

In his speech, the prime minister also praised the Queen's 60 years of public service and announced the creation of a Diamond Jubilee Trust to help those in need across the Commonwealth. The trust will be chaired by former Prime Minister Sir John Major.

Mr Cameron said Britain would make a multi-million pound donation to the grant-making body and encouraged other commonwealth nations to do the same.

The Commonwealth Heads of Government Meetings (Chogm) are held every two years, and present an opportunity for the 54 nations with current or former ties to Britain to discuss a range of issues.

The Chogm summit will also discuss economic growth, climate change and human rights at this year's meeting.

2011年10月27日 星期四

Britain sleepwalks towards break-up

Little England: Britain sleepwalks towards break-up

Alex Salmond addressed the Scottish National party's annual conference the other day. ​​Few beyond Scotland will have noticed. That is a pity. As David Cameron's Conservatives resume their obsessive debate about leaving Europe, Mr Salmond is advancing Scotland's departure from Britain.

亞歷克斯•薩爾蒙德(Alex Salmond)日前在蘇格蘭民族黨(SNP)年度大會上發表了講話。在蘇格蘭以外,肯定沒什麼人注意這次講話。這真令人遺憾。就在戴維•卡梅倫(David Cameron)的保守黨(Conservatives)再次一門心思圍繞脫離歐盟展開爭論時,薩爾蒙德正在推動蘇格蘭脫離英國。

North and south of the border with England, the SNP leader is a grown up among adolescents. Alone among Britain's party leaders, he has the confidence and guile to change the political weather. As Scotland's first minister he is running rings around unionist opponents in Edinburgh and Westminster.


Mr Cameron is comfortable in 10 Downing Street. Labour's Ed Miliband is settling in for what could be an uncomfortably long spell as opposition leader. Nick Clegg has lost the haunted expression he wore during the Liberal Democrats first year in coalition. These are not leaders, though, who rewrite the terms of political debate.

卡梅倫在唐寧街10號過得優哉游哉。工黨(Labour)的埃德•米利班德(Ed Miliband)正在適應自己的反對黨領袖身份,因為他可能會在一個長得令人心煩的時期內扮演這一角色。尼克•克萊格(Nick Clegg)的臉上已經不再掛著他在自民黨(Liberal Democrats)進入聯合政府頭一年時展現出的那種焦慮表情。不過,他們都不是那類改寫政治辯論內容的領袖。

Mr Salmond is in a different class. You don't have to like or agree with him to acknowledge he has recast the argument about the 300-year-old union binding Scotland to England. Will Scotland still be tied to its southern neighbour in, say, 15 years hence? I wouldn't bet on it.

薩爾蒙德則是另一類領袖。你也許不喜歡他或者不贊同他,但你仍然會承認,他改寫了圍繞蘇格蘭-英格蘭聯盟的辯論。 300年來,這個聯盟一直把這兩個王國綁在一起。若干年後,比如說15年後,蘇格蘭還會與它南邊的鄰居綁在一起嗎?我不敢肯定。

At the very least, the SNP is leading Scotland to self-rule in all but foreign affairs – an autonomy comparable to that enjoyed by Catalonia. Many will think this is no bad thing – for the English or the Scots. But surely the relationship is worthy of serious discussion across Britain? It would be curious were the union to sleepwalk towards break-up.


Unionists are doing their best to assist Mr Salmond. The voting system for the Edinburgh parliament was designed to prevent the SNP from ever winning a governing majority. Mr Salmond has now secured just such a position. The electoral checks and balances failed to anticipate the self -destructive capacity of the unionist parties.


The rot began to set in for Conservatives, of course, during Margaret Thatcher's heyday. ​​But the big failure since has been the Scottish Tories' unwillingness to adjust to devolution. Decisions about health, education and welfare – things that matter to voters – are now taken in Edinburgh. Tories invite the charge of irrelevance by talking about nothing but the union.

當然,保守黨的衰落在瑪格麗特•撒切爾(Margaret Thatcher)的鼎盛時期就開始了。但蘇格蘭保守黨在那之後的重大失誤,是不願針對英國政府向蘇格蘭移交部分權力作出調整、以適應這一現實。現在,蘇格蘭關於醫療、教育和福利(這些都是與選民息息相關的事務)的決策,都是在愛丁堡做出的。保守黨卻除了蘇格蘭-英格蘭聯合議題什麼也不談,難怪選民批評他們“離題萬里”。

Labour has been laid low by hubris. Gordon Brown saw Scotland as a personal fiefdom. It sustained Labour's (disproportionately Scottish) politicians at Westminster. The party's best and brightest from north of the border would not waste their time in local politics when they could play on a British stage.

工黨則敗於傲慢。戈登•布朗(Gordon Brown)視蘇格蘭為個人封地。這種傲慢使得工黨(工黨內的蘇格蘭人多得離譜)的政治家們不願離開威斯敏斯特。當有機會在英國的舞台上施展拳腳時,那些最出色、最聰明的蘇格蘭工黨成員是不會把時間浪費在蘇格蘭地方政治上的。

Unsurprisingly Scottish voters have woken up to the insult. Why should they back a party that treats their parliament as a parish council? Even now, leading Scottish Labour figures such as Jim Murphy and Douglas Alexander prefer opposition at Westminster to a shot at the top job in Edinburgh.

面對這種侮辱,難怪蘇格蘭選民會醒悟過來。他們為什麼要支持一個把他們的議會當作教區委員會(parish council)的政黨呢?即使是現在,像吉姆•墨菲(Jim Murphy)和道格拉斯•亞歷山大(Douglas Alexander)這樣的蘇格蘭工黨頭面人物,也仍然更願意呆在威斯敏斯特當反對黨,而不是在愛丁堡爭當執政黨

The Lib Dems are paying a price for throwing in their lot with Mr Cameron. Mr Clegg wants to show that the party can shoulder responsibility at Westminster. A noble ambition. But there are better ways to win friends in Scotland.


None of this is to deny Mr Salmond's achievement in taking nationalism from the margins to the mainstream of Scottish politics. Not too long ago much of polite society in Edinburgh, Glasgow or Aberdeen saw the SNP as a collection of leftish cranks. Now it has begun to look like the party of the establishment.


This is not to say the business and professional classes have embraced separatism. My Scottish friends always draw an important distinction. They can vote for the SNP in Scotland while backing unionist parties in British general elections. Mr Salmond cannot be sure of winning if the choice posed in his promised referendum is a straightforward one between the status quo and independence.


Now, though, we know that there will be a third option. Mr Salmond used his conference speech to throw his weight behind a three-question plebiscite – with the third option providing for what is called “devolution max”. The implication is that the return to Scotland of full control over the economy, spending, taxation and borrowing would represent a moderate third way.


It would be nothing of the sort. Devolution max would put Scotland on the threshold of independence. It would demand a rewriting of the constitutional settlement that would inevitably leave many Scots asking why not independence. The fact that such an arrangement is presented as a “ sensible compromise” speaks to Mr Salmond's political genius in reframing the debate.

事情決非如此。 “最大限度移交權力”將把蘇格蘭推到獨立的臨界點。它要求對憲法性共識進行改寫,最終會不可避免地會讓許多蘇格蘭人自問:為什麼不干脆獨立呢?薩爾蒙德將這種安排稱為“明智的妥協”,這是他在重構這場辯論中表現出的政治天賦的明證。

For many in M​​r Cameron's party, however, it seems that severing ties with Brussels is more important than preserving them with Edinburgh. Before they know it, the sceptics may find themselves demanding England's rather than Britain'sdeparture from the European Union. Perhaps they will call themselves Little Englanders.

然而,對保守黨中的許多人來說,斬斷與布魯塞爾的聯繫似乎比維持與愛丁堡的聯繫更為重要。這些懷疑論者可能會在不知不覺中發現,他們的訴求變成了要英格蘭而不是要英國脫離歐盟。或許那時,他們得稱自己為“小英格蘭”人(Little England,與Great Britain即“大不列顛”相對——譯者註)。


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2011年10月25日 星期二

The Out of Asia season

This autumn, Sadler's Wells presents a collection of works from across Asia. The Out of Asia season brings together artists from China, Vietnam, Bangladesh, Japan and Taiwan.

倫敦沙德勒之井劇院(Sadler's Wells)舉辦《走出亞洲舞蹈季》,邀請亞洲國家和地區七個舞蹈團參加演出。北京當代芭蕾舞團演繹的現代芭蕾《霾》是參加演出的項目之一,它向外國觀眾展示了中國舞蹈的另外一面。

北京當代芭蕾舞團團長王媛媛由2009年中國汶川地震等諸多大事有感而發,創作了這部舞蹈作品。該作品 分為「燈」、「城」、「岸」三個章節以純粹的肢體語言,展現當下人們對經濟危機,環境危機的反應,反映了現代人對生命的反思,並進行內心探索的複雜過程。 這部作品融合了芭蕾舞和現代舞元素,表現形式非常抽像,這在一定程度上使西方觀眾更容易理解舞蹈的內涵。


2011年10月23日 星期日

'Occupy London' start camp in Finsbury Square

倫敦反資本主義抗議者在倫敦金融城的Finsbury Square開闢第二戰場。 此前因抗議者連續多日在聖保羅大教堂外安營扎寨,教堂被迫對公眾關閉。 倫敦的示威者以美國佔領華爾街的示威者為榜樣,給自己的行動起名為「佔領倫敦」。 他們說,約二、三百人已經在Finsbury Square ...

Finsbury Square

Finsbury Square is a 0.7-hectare (1.7-acre) square in central London. [1] It was developed in 1777 on the site of a previous area of green space to the east of London known as Finsbury Fields, in the parish of St Luke's and near Moorfields. It is sited on the east side of City Road, opposite the east side of Bunhill Fields. It is approximately 200m north of Moorgate and 400m south of Old Street. Nearby locations are Finsbury Circus and Finsbury Pavement.

It is served by bus routes 21, 43, 141, 271, 214 and 274.

[edit] History

Past residents of the square include Pascoe Grenfell Hill, Thomas Southwood Smith and Philip Henry Pye-Smith. It has also been the site of the bookshop of James Lackington and the first home of the rabbinical seminary that became the London School of Jewish Studies (1855–81), of the Greek Orthodox church of Saint Sophia and of the Roman Catholic Church of St Mary Moorfields (1820–1900). The Square's Guildhall is still the HQ of the City of London Yeomanry. More recently, on 22 October 2011, Occupy London protesters began to camp on the Square.[2]

[edit] Recent improvements

On October 22 Finsbury Square was upgraded to membership of the global occupy movement.


'Occupy London' start camp in Finsbury Square

The BBC's John Brain says the protest outside St Paul's is costing the cathedral £16,000 a day in lost tourism revenue

Related Stories

Anti-capitalist protesters have started a second camp in London - as a demonstration outside St Paul's Cathedral entered its seventh day.

About 30 tents have been put up in Finsbury Square in London's business district.

The move came as up to 300 protesters from Occupy London Stock Exchange (OccupyLSX) refused to leave the front of St Paul's.

The cathedral has been closed since Friday amid safety concerns.

Protester A protester lies in her tent in Finsbury Square

OccupyLSX said it had been working "to accommodate the cathedral's concerns".

The group says it is protesting against "corporate greed".

Although the cathedral was closed to tourists, a planned wedding did take place on Saturday.

Rather than using the cathedral's grand entrance, bride Natasha Ighodaro, an account manager for a PR company, entered through a side door.

The bride smiled broadly as she left the service, saying: "It's been amazing. There hasn't been any disruption at all - it's been wonderful, really amazing."

Meanwhile, some of her guests offered support to the activists.

John Giles, from Godalming in Surrey, said: "I think there are valuable comments being made and it seems to have been done in a peaceful way.

"They have a democratic right to protest."

A spokesman for the cathedral - which costs £20,000 per day to run and draws between 2,000 and 3,000 worshippers each Sunday - said it would lose about £16,000 in visitor donations for every day it is closed.

City of London Police said it would not comment on how many officers were attending the protest.

Bride at St Paul's Bride Natasha Ighodaro arrives for her wedding at St Paul's Cathedral

A police spokesman said "dynamic policing" was in place.

"We are communicating with protesters, the cathedral and local businesses to ensure sufficient policing response to facilitate peaceful protest," he said.

Senior staff at St Paul's Cathedral are continuing to meet City of London Corporation (CLC) officials over the decision to close to the public - for the first time since World War II .

One CLC member called on them to disband in a peaceful manner.

The action by the cathedral authorities and the Dean, the Right Reverend Graeme Knowles, follows appeals to the group whose numbers have grown during the week.

In a statement published on the cathedral's website, Dean Knowles said they were left with "no lawful alternative" but to close St Paul's.

The decision had been taken "with a heavy heart" but it was "simply not possible to fulfil our day to day obligations to worshippers, visitors and pilgrims in current circumstances".

"With so many stoves and fires and lots of different types of fuel around, there is a clear fire hazard," the letter said.

OccupyLSX protesters said they had tried to answer such concerns, reorganising their camp "in response to feedback from the fire brigade".

The area around St Paul's Cathedral
Your comments (394)

2011年10月19日 星期三

Rising energy bills causing fuel poverty deaths 英國經濟不平等解剖


 倫敦政經學院接受英國政府委託,進行長達16個月的調查,2010年公布「英國經濟不平等解剖報告」(An Anatomy of Economic Inequality in the UK)。報告指出,2007到2008年,英國的收入不平等創下自第二次世界大戰以來最嚴重紀錄,收入在全國前10%的家庭,年收入至少85萬3000英 鎊(約新台幣4000萬元),而收入最低的10%,年收入僅8800英鎊,貧富的差距近100倍。




 研究人員進一步調查家庭的財富,全國前10%的高收入者,到退休時(約55到64歲),連同房地產與退休資產,財富達220萬英鎊,但收入在底層10%的家庭,只有8000英鎊,兩者天差地別 。

 英國研究種族平等的智庫「The Runnymede Trust 」政策研究主任歐瑪汗(Omar Khan)指出,英國少數族裔的財富普遍低於白人。根據就業與養老金部門的報告,60%的黑人及南亞人家庭沒有任何儲蓄,33%的白人家庭則都有儲蓄。

 2009年英國第一份財富與資產報告顯示,平均白人家庭約有22萬1000英鎊,加勒比海黑人家庭約有7萬 6000英鎊,孟加拉裔家庭2萬1000英鎊,非洲黑人家庭則是1萬5000英鎊。



 雪菲爾大學教授多林(Danny Dorling),在所著的「不公正:為何社會不公平持續存在」(Injustice: Why Social Inequality Persists)一書指出,倫敦是西方國家中,貧富差距最嚴重的城市。

 他指出,倫敦1/10最有錢的人,平均財富達93萬 3563英鎊,較最貧窮的1/10市民的3420英鎊,幾乎達 273倍。


 物質主義盛行使貧窮家庭父母面臨巨大壓力,他們擔心子女沒有和同學或朋友一樣的球鞋及電子用品,在同儕團體矮人一截,即使負債也會想辦法滿足子女的需要,以免遭「品牌霸凌」(brand bulling)。

 一位14歲的青少年告訴研究人員,不管你有沒有錢,都要裝得你有錢,你可能住在垃圾桶裡,但只要你有 iPod、黑莓機,你就可以被接受。


 倫敦政經學院教授貝爾(Brian Bell)指出,倫敦金融業支付員工高薪,是造成貧富差距擴大的主因。

 他在調查研究時發現,1998年金融業員工的平均薪資為15萬1000英鎊,是全國平均薪資的7.5倍,到了 2008年平均薪資提高到31萬4000英鎊,則是全國平均薪資的10倍。





Rising energy bills causing fuel poverty deaths

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Charlene Franklin talks to Simon Gompertz about fuel poverty: "There have been times when I wouldn't eat two or three times in the week"

Related Stories

Thousands of people die each year from illnesses linked to fuel poverty, according to an independent report.

Professor John Hills has called for a new definition of the problem, which focuses on people with low incomes driven into poverty by high fuel bills.

His report found that in 2004, fuel-poor households faced a shortfall of £256 to heat their homes and avoid poverty, but in 2009 it was £402.

Recent bill increases may make the problem worse this year, he warned.

Fuel poverty gap

Fuel poverty gap

Graphic showing fuel poverty gap

The government commissioned Prof Hills to examine how serious a problem fuel poverty is and how it should be measured.

He argues that fuel poverty poses serious public health and environmental issues.

His report is the first to measure the shortfall that some households face in heating their homes, which he calls the fuel poverty gap.

Further increases in bills since then are likely to have widened this gap, he warned.


The report argued this shortfall had serious implications for health.

There are 27,000 extra deaths in the UK each winter compared to other times of year, according to figures from the Office of National Statistics. The report found most of this was due to cold weather.

That figure is one of the highest in Europe and worse than Finland, the Netherlands, Germany, Sweden, Norway and France.

Start Quote

There are people dying, maybe more people die each year than on the roads”

Prof John Hills

Prof Hills drew on a seperate independent report - the Marmot review - which found that about one-fifth of these additional winter deaths occurred in the coldest quarter of homes, with further evidence suggesting a link between fuel poverty and cold homes.

And an expert meeting of the World Health Organization suggested that about half of winter deaths are due to cold indoor rather than cold outdoor temperatures.

This meant, the Hills report concluded, that an estimated 2,700 people die each year because of health conditions, such as respiratory infections or cardiovascular problems, linked to fuel poverty.

"It's a very serious problem," said Prof Hills. "There are people dying, maybe more people dying each year than die on the roads, it's a problem of hardship for low-income families who are having to pay out more when they've got hard-to-heat houses and it's a problem for countering climate change."

Low-income households are unable to invest in energy efficiency measures, hindering efforts both to reduce their bills and to lower UK carbon emissions.

Changing definition

However, Prof Hills found that the way we define fuel poverty may need to change.

By the old definition, a household was defined as being in fuel poverty if 10% of its income was spent on fuel each year.

The latest figures from the Department of Energy and Climate change suggested four million English households fitted into this category in 2009, in a sharp increase from 1.2 million in 2003.

Estimates from the Centre for Sustainable Energy suggest that number has risen to 5.5 million for England and an estimate of 6.6 million for the UK.

But Prof Hills suggests the current definition did not focus tightly enough on fuel poverty.

Instead, he suggested people be defined as fuel-poor only if their bills were relatively high and if paying those bills would push them below the poverty line.

Start Quote

Insulating the homes of the poor is the only long term and sustainable solution”

Derek Lickorish Fuel Poverty Advisory Group

That would mean that in 2009, fewer people were classed as fuel-poor - 2.7 million in England.

However, the problem appears less variable, with roughly the same number categorised as fuel poor in 2003, more than double the estimate for that period on the current definition.

Government measures

The government says it is already taking measures to tackle the issue.

It has recently announced the Warm Homes Discount on energy bills, which includes reductions of about £120 to the poorest pensioners in addition to winter fuel payments.

Energy suppliers are also obliged to offer free or reduced packages on home insulation to some high-risk groups, using money recouped from a charge on energy bills.

However, some government measures, such as the Warm Front Scheme designed to help insulate low-income homes, are due to end next year.

Derek Lickorish, chair of the Government's Fuel Poverty Advisory Group (FPAG), called the figures for the number of deaths due to fuel poverty a "disgrace".

"Insulating the homes of the fuel poor is the only long-term and sustainable solution to solving this problem, but they will need financial help to make this happen and this takes time. Urgent action must start today," he said.

An opposition debate on fuel bills is due to take place on Wednesday.

Can you afford to heat your home? Are you in fuel poverty? Do any of your friends or family members suffer as a result of rising energy costs? Send us your stories using the form below.

If you are happy to be contacted by a BBC journalist please leave a telephone number that we can contact you on. In some cases a selection of your comments will be published, displaying your name as you provide it and location, unless you state otherwise. Your contact details will never be published. When sending us pictures, video or eyewitness accounts at no time should you endanger yourself or others, take any unnecessary risks or infringe any laws. Please ensure you have read the terms and conditions.

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2011年10月17日 星期一

the London Beer Flood

with Beer
Was there really a time when beer flowed through the streets of London? Yes. But it wasn't necessarily a good thing. In the 19th century, beer fermented for months at a time in huge vats that rested on the roof of the Horse Shoe Brewery on Tottenham Court Road and Oxford Street. On October 17, 1814, the iron hoops supporting the largest vat — which held some 600,000 liters (160,000 gallons) of porter — collapsed under the weight. The vat burst and all the beer came gushing out, causing the vats nearby to explode as well. More than a million liters (265,000 gallons) of beer knocked down the 25-foot (7.6-meter) brick wall of the brewery and flooded the surrounding streets. Roofs collapsed and houses toppled. Nine people died, mostly due to drowning or from fatal injuries from passing timber. One man died of alcohol poisoning, after drinking too much of the beverage. Neighborhood residents rushed out with mugs, pots and buckets to collect the free beer. Though a lawsuit was brought against the brewery, the London Beer Flood was ruled an act of God and the brewery was not held legally responsible.

2011年10月14日 星期五

Occupy the London Stock Exchange

Tuesday 11 October 2011

Occupy the London Stock Exchange

Keep up to date at http://occupylondon.org.uk/

On October 15th we will be Occupying the London Stock Exchange. At the same time thousands continue to occupy Wall Street and hundreds of cities from Paris and Madrid to Buenos Aires and Caracas are staging actions and occupations together for a global day of action.

By reclaiming space in the face of the economic systems that have caused terrible injustices across the world, we can open up and engage our communities into public discussions. These assemblies will allow people to voice their ideas for how we can work towards a better future and help us create concrete demands to be met. A future free from austerity within a context of growing inequality, unemployment, tax injustice and a political elite who ignores its citizens. So it’s time for citizens to represent themselves. To work together to resist the government’s plans and to do this in solidarity with the hundreds of thousands of others around the world on the same day.

The problems we face in the UK echoes across the world. We are linked by the same root causes, so we cannot solve these problems in isolation. October 15th will be a global day of action calling for global change.

‘O-15: Unite for Global Change’ has been called by the ‘indignants’ movement in Spain, where thousands camped out in the squares for weeks, building massive popular pressure on the government. It inspired the current Wall Street occupation in New York, providing a space for the majority to resist the wishes of the greedy minority.

Join us at the London Stock Exchange to reclaim space and take part in workshops on topics ranging from Debt and The Spanish Indignants Movement to Fuel Poverty and Climate Justice. Contribute in the Open Assemblies and chant songs of solidarity with Samba bands. Exact times and locations to be announced soon.

OccupyLSX Facebook page: https://www.facebook.com/occupylondon
Twitter: @OccupyLSX (www.twitter.com/OccupyLSX)
hashtags #OccupyLSX #OccupyLondon

占領華爾街 戰場將擴到倫敦 【2011/10/14 10:20】


占領倫敦交易所(Occupy the London Stock Exchange)活動,10天前在臉書(Facebook)開始發動,號召支持者15日中午在倫敦交易所附近的聖保羅大教堂前集合,再展開遊行,但具體路線目前仍未確定。

參加活動策劃的柯文(Naomi Colvin)接受中央社記者訪問時說,參與策劃的人來自不同背景,大家都關切金融服務業在英國及全世界扮演的角色,例如2008年爆發的金融危機,以及多家金融機構嚴重經營不善,同時政府負債也因此增加。







PITY the world’s savers. Economists and other busybodies chide them for not spending more, thereby stimulating the economy. Meanwhile their pension schemes are steadily being made less generous, a process that will require them to save more, not less, if they want to enjoy a comfortable retirement. Britons now retiring on private pensions will receive an income 30% less than those who left work three years ago (see Buttonwood). When savers try to find a home for their money, they face daily headlines about bank bailouts, sovereign-debt crises and the possibility of another recession.



A trillion here, $500 billion there

The huge shortfalls in pension plans

THE pension hole just keeps getting bigger. The assets owned by pension schemes have generally been falling in price while their liabilities have been relentlessly rising. One of the culprits is quantitative easing (QE), a tactic devised by central banks to revive the economy.

The numbers can boggle the mind. Mercer, a consultancy, reckons the hole in final-salary corporate plans in America was $512 billion at the end of September, the highest figure since the second world war. The average corporate pension plan had a funding ratio (the proportion of liabilities covered by assets) of just 72%, down from 81% at the end of 2010. In Britain the Pension Protection Fund reported this week that the aggregate deficit of the schemes it insures stood at £196 billion ($309 billion) at the end of September; the average funding ratio was 83%.

Those numbers look tiddly beside the public-sector pension deficits. In 2009 Joshua Rauh of the Kellogg School of Management at Northwestern University and Robert Novy-Marx, then at the University of Chicago’s Booth School of Business, estimated that the deficit of American state and local-government pension plans was $3.1 trillion. Mr Rauh reckons that the deficit is now $4.4 trillion. In other words, a cool $1.3 trillion has been added in two years.

These figures will not be accepted by everyone. Many states still discount their pension liabilities by the assumed rate of return on their assets, often around 8%. But this is a highly dubious assumption. Government bodies still have to pay the pensions, regardless of whether they achieve those returns or not.

Instead, some Warren Buffett-like principles ought to apply. If a promise to pay someone money in the future isn’t a debt, what is it? And if a debt shouldn’t be recorded at cost, how should it be recorded? A company might borrow $50m in the bond markets to build a factory, after all, but it cannot record the debt on its balance-sheet at less than $50m on the ground that it expects to earn a higher return from the factory than its cost of borrowing.

A public-sector employer could replace its pension plan by buying a promise of equivalent value in the markets and handing over the proceeds to its employees. Since pension promises are legally (and sometimes constitutionally) protected in many states, the equivalent promise is a government bond. That is why the government-bond yield is the appropriate measure for discounting public liabilities, as Messrs Rauh and Novy-Marx assert.

The Bank of England recognises this issue. Its employees are guaranteed an inflation-linked pension so it meets that promise by buying inflation-linked bonds. The current cost is 55% of payroll, far more than most employers put aside. Other employers are paying less into their funds and taking a gamble that the equity market will deliver the rest. In effect, they are handing a guarantee of future stockmarket performance to their employees; something that would be very expensive to buy.

Oddly enough, the Bank of England has played its part in escalating the costs of other British pension schemes. The aim of QE is to lower bond yields. This raises the liabilities of pension funds (since it takes more money to deliver the same pension). The Pensions Corporation, an insurer, reckons the first round of QE increased the British pension hole by £74 billion. Regulations require that this hole be closed within ten years, costing companies £7.4 billion a year, money that could have gone into building factories and employing new workers. The National Association of Pension Funds has called for an emergency meeting with the regulator; the hope is that the contribution rules can be eased a bit.

These same issues apply to those on private and defined-contribution pensions. Struggling asset markets mean they build up a smaller pension pot; low bond yields mean the annuity income from that pot is lower. The result, according to a study by PricewaterhouseCoopers, a consultancy, is that Britons retiring today will end up with a pension income 30% lower than those retiring three years ago.

Workers approaching retirement should be saving more, not less, as a result of low rates. First, they will need to build up a larger pot to generate their desired income in retirement. Second, filling that pot will require more capital because investment returns will be lower.

It may be that, in aggregate, these side-effects of QE are outweighed by the relief brought to borrowers from lower rates. All the same it is an unfortunate piece of collateral damage, something the authorities have so far failed to address.

2011年10月13日 星期四

All's Fair in London

[COVER] Tony Kyriacou/Rex Features

A visitor admires Nigel Cooke's 'No Holidays' (2011) at Frieze Art Fair.

Artists, collectors, critics, curators and dealers have descended on London through Sunday to take part in the seventh annual Frieze Art Fair (www.friezeartfair.com), a key marketplace for contemporary art globally, with 173 galleries from 33 countries, showcasing more than 1,000 artists. Frieze's success has inspired an autumn art jamboree throughout the city, stimulating satellite fairs, auction sales and shows in other galleries.

Started in 2003 by Frieze Magazine editors Matthew Slotover and Amanda Sharp to sell contemporary art to a growing cohort of international collectors, fair participants are vetted by a committee of their peers to attract blue-chip galleries, as well as a high-spending, contemporary-art-loving audience. "We provide a focused contemporary art fair—that is our appeal," Ms. Sharp says.

Almost since its inception, Frieze stole contemporary thunder from those old ladies of the art market—Tefaf in Maastricht, strongest in Old Masters and antiques, and Art Basel, which spans both modern and contemporary. The appeal of Frieze, says art consultant Tanya Gertik, is "the energy and the buzz. It's very sociable."

Courtesy of Cristina Grajales Gallery, New York

Sebastian Errazuriz's 'Porcupine Cabinet' (2011) on show at PAD.

Since Frieze first opened, international art fairs, alongside their cousins—the biennials—have proliferated: Art Basel spawned Art Basel Miami Beach, which then generated Design Miami and, in turn, Design Miami Basel, set up to achieve the same market intensification for contemporary design that the mother fair had achieved for art. Older fairs, like Art Chicago and the Grosvenor House Art & Antiques Fair, have ceded some priority to newer fairs, such as Art Hong Kong and Masterpiece London.

But some collectors find the blockbuster model overwhelming, preferring a more intimate environment. "The minute a fair gets too large, the enjoyment goes out of it," Ms. Gertik says. Bernard Hartogs, a collector of art and design, adds: "I don't go to Frieze. It's too big." This is one reason why Frieze Week has also, quietly, become PAD week.

It was in 2007 that DesignArt first opened in Hanover Square, with just 19 galleries. Hoping to benefit from the seasonal delirium, French antique dealer Patrick Perrin and modern- and contemporary-art specialist Stéphane Custot, the founders of the successful Pavillon des Arts et du Design in Paris, launched a complementary fair to Frieze, offering one-off and limited-edition contemporary design mixed in with classic European modern design. A year later, the fair was offered Berkeley Square, a prime location, and the charmingly Continental mix of decorative arts, with modern and contemporary design, began to gel. By 2009, the duo felt confident enough to introduce modern art to the mix, experimenting in London with the formula pioneered in Paris. The renamed Pavilion of Art & Design London would invite galleries who specialized in fine art, decorative art or design that post-dated 1860—made after the advent of industrial mass manufacture, but without the contemporary art that is so well served in Regent's Park.

Running through Sunday, PAD (www.padlondon.net), is small and selective, with only 58 galleries. The genial mix of art, design and fine craft—Cristina Grajales's stand this week offers two striking cabinets by Christophe Côme and Sebastian Errazuriz, while Jousse Entreprise has a classic Jean Royère sofa—promotes a way of living with art as much as the buying of it.

Gérard Faggionato of Faggionato Fine Arts in London, says PAD "is comfortable, and people come back two or three times during the week."

Like Frieze, PAD doesn't issue an overall statement of sales, arguing that since sales often aren't concluded until months after the event, such statistics are misleading. Instead, it points you to the quality of the exhibits. Andrew Duncanson from Modernity has rare pieces by Alvar Aalto; Todd Merrill, an outstanding 3.5-meter sculpture of a dandelion (circa 1960) by Harry Bertoia; and Bernard Jacobson, some magnificent Robert Motherwell canvases. "The material is very good," Julian Treager, a collector of fine art, design and jewelry says. "Last year, I bought a vintage Cartier necklace from the 1970s. The year before, some pieces by Studio Job from Carpenters Workshop Gallery."

For the past five years, these two very different fairs have flourished in a finely balanced symbiosis. Next year, however, things are set to change when Frieze launches Frieze Masters, a second fair that will partly encroach on PAD's territory by exhibiting works of art from antiquity through 2000. Frieze Masters will occupy a marquee specially designed by New York art-space specialist Annabelle Selldorf, on the other side of Regent's Park from the contemporary fair, with its own program of events. Ms. Sharp explains that they are "bringing a contemporary approach to historical art—we will bring this art to new audiences." This initiative has been inspired by her recognition that "the past is present in every decision contemporary artists make. This is an opportunity to explore those connections more imaginatively." Meanwhile, in May, Frieze hopes to recreate its London achievement in New York, with a contemporary fair on Randall's Island Park, overlooking the East River.

PAD, however, remains unintimidated. Full of confidence in their concept, and with a line-up of loyal galleries, PAD too is launching a New York edition, Nov. 11-13. As Frieze and PAD continue in full swing, there is competitive tension in the air.

Mr. Perrin hopes his prime location, in Berkeley Square, will keep his modern dealers away from Frieze Masters. "If you bring the right collectors in front of the right booths, the dealers will trust you," he says, adding that "Frieze had no interest in modern painting. The people from contemporary art have almost no interest in the past."

Bloody Sunday


英國國防部將準備賠償在「血腥星期日」(Bloody Sunday)中,遭到政府軍隊射殺的受害者。


年,首相布萊爾決定重啟此案調查。20106月,由薩維爾(Lord Saville)勛爵領導,費時12年所完成的「血腥星期日」調查報告問世,才真正為這起悲劇釐清歷史責任。調查報告認為,英軍在沒有受到威脅的情況下開火,造成沒有武裝平民的死傷。薩維爾形容士兵們失去自我控制能力,且未遵守槍械使用規則。首相卡麥隆去年在將報告呈交給國會時,為軍方的行為道歉,直指當時的武力鎮壓既不正當,也無可辯護。




2011年10月10日 星期一

Paul McCartney, ministerial code, “佔領倫敦”The City

好幸福 保羅麥卡尼娶美國富豪千金 【2011/10/10 09:06】

前披頭四樂團(Beatles)成員保羅麥卡尼(Paul McCartney)昨天在英國倫敦迎娶美國富豪千金徐佛(Nancy Shevell),婚禮現場星光閃閃。(路透社)
〔本報訊〕根據外電報導,前披頭四樂團(Beatles)成員保羅麥卡尼(Paul McCartney)昨天在英國倫敦迎娶美國富豪千金徐佛(Nancy Shevell),婚禮現場星光閃閃,包括滾石樂團(Rolling Stones)羅尼伍德(Ronnie Wood)、同為前披頭四樂團團員的哥史達(Ringo Starr)均到場獻上祝福。

外電指出,徐佛來自紐約,身為富豪千金的她,為保羅麥卡尼第3任妻子。保羅麥卡尼第1任妻子為伊斯特曼(Linda Eastman),伊斯特曼在1998年死於乳癌;第2任名模妻子米爾茲(Heather Mills)則是在2008與他決裂交惡。


保羅麥卡尼爵士是一名英國搖滾音樂家、創作歌手以及作曲家,前披頭四(1960-1970年)及Wings(1971-1981年)樂團隊員。作為披頭四 的成員,保羅·麥卡尼與約翰·藍儂、喬治·哈里森和哥史達一起取得世界性的知名度,特別是他與藍儂形成了非常成功而且影響力深遠的創作組合,兩人攜手寫出 好些搖滾樂界最受歡迎的歌曲,例如《Hey Jude》、《Let It Be》等都經常被視作流行樂界的金曲,而《Helter Skelter》被指為歷來第一首重金屬音樂。

音樂以外,保羅·麥卡尼參與過電影製作,嘗試過繪畫,並極力支持一些國際慈善機構的計劃。他在生活中提倡維護動物權益、推廣素食主義、普及音樂教育,同時 更為熱烈地投身於對抗戰後地雷、捕殺海豹以及第三世界債務的社會運動之中。1997年3月11日,早已擁有大英帝國員佐級勳章(MBE)的他進一步獲英女 王冊封為爵士勳銜(Knight Bachelor)。

BBC News - PM demands Liam Fox MoD inquiry answers by Monday

www.bbc.co.uk › ... › BBC NewsUK Politics -
2 days ago – On Friday, Mr Fox ordered a MoD inquiry into whether their relationship had breached the ministerial code. Mr Cameron has now asked the ...

The City

英國一些抗議者正計劃于10月15日在倫敦市金融區建立“帳篷城”,發起“佔領倫敦”運動。 創建“佔領倫敦”Facebook組群的凱·瓦格拉(Kai Wargalla)說:“華爾街抗議者鼓舞了我們,但那只是個開始。我們需要人們站起來,發出自己的聲音。”“佔領倫敦”運動的目的是團結英國活動家, ...

卡梅倫敦促歐盟領導人采取“大型反坦克火箭”措施來解決歐元危機,并警告他們只剩下幾周時間可以避免經濟災難。 德國總理默克爾(Angela Merkel)與法國總統薩科齊(Nicolas Sarkozy)周日(9日)會晤后表示,將在月底宣布新的解決歐元區債務的一攬子綜合性措施。 ...

2011年10月9日 星期日

The Phantom Of The Opera, Celebrating 25 Years

Saturday 1 October - Sunday 2 October 2011

The Phantom of the Opera

OFFICIAL PRESS RELEASE: Celebrating 25 Years, Cameron Mackintosh Presents Andrew Lloyd Webber’s The Phantom Of The Opera At The Royal Albert Hall On Saturday 1st And Sunday 2nd October 2011


Cameron Mackintosh is delighted to present Andrew Lloyd Webber’s THE PHANTOM OF THE OPERA at the Royal Albert Hall on Saturday 1st October at 7.30pm and Sunday 2nd October at 1.30pm and 7.00pm. Tickets for “Phantom of the Opera at the Albert Hall” go on sale on Monday 4 July at 10.00am and are available on 0845 401 5045 or at www.phantom25th.com

This lavish, fully staged production of “Phantom of the Opera at the Albert Hall” will star Ramin Karimloo as ‘The Phantom’ and Sierra Boggess as ‘Christine’. They will be joined by Barry James as ‘Monsieur Firmin’, Gareth Snook as ‘Monsieur André’, Liz Robertson as ‘Madame Giry’ and Wynne Evans as ‘Piangi’ together with a cast and orchestra of over 200 and some special guest appearances.

“Phantom of the Opera at the Albert Hall” will be directed by Laurence Connor with Musical Staging and Choreography by Gillian Lynne. The Royal Albert Hall will be transformed with a spectacular and unique design by Matt Kinley inspired by Maria Björnson’s original design. Lighting is by Patrick Woodroffe and Andrew Bridge and Sound by Mick Potter. The original London production was directed by Hal Prince.

Ramin Karimloo’s theatre credits include, leading roles in “Love Never Dies” (2011 Olivier Award Nominee and Winner of the 2011 What’s On Stage Award, both for ‘Best Actor in a Musical’), “The Phantom of the Opera” (Theatre Goers’ Choice Award Nomination) “Les Misérables”, “Miss Saigon”, “The Pirates of Penzance” and “Sunset Boulevard”.

Ramin had the privilege of performing as ‘Enjolras’ in “Les Misérables – A Special Concert at Windsor Castle” to celebrate the centenary of the Entente Cordiale, in front of Her Majesty The Queen and also reprised the role for the 25th Anniversary celebration of “Les Misérables at The 02”. Recordings include: his own album “Within the Six Square Inch” and the première symphonic recording of “Love Never Dies”. Ramin has signed with a major label and is currently recording his
first solo album.

Sierra Boggess is currently starring opposite Tyne Daly in the Broadway revival of Terrence McNally’s “Master Class”. Prior to that, she starred in Andrew Lloyd Webber’s “Love Never Dies” in the West End. For her performance as ‘Christine Daae,’ Sierra received a 2011 Olivier Award nomination for Best Actress in a Musical. Sierra’s other NY theatre credits include starring as the title character in the Broadway production of Disney’s “The Little Mermaid” (Drama Desk and Drama League nominations and Broadway.com award for Favourite Breakthrough Performance) and in the City Centre Encores! production of “Music in the Air”. She starred as ‘Christine’ in “Phantom – The Las Vegas Spectacular” and has been seen in the national tours of “Les Misérables” and “West Side Story”. Recordings include the Symphonic Recording of “Love Never Dies” and the Original Cast Album for Disney’s “The Little Mermaid”.

Sir Cameron Mackintosh said “It is amazing to think that the extraordinary success of The Phantom
of the Opera is about to celebrate 25 years.

From the very first performance, audiences have fallen in love with the unique alchemy of Andrew Lloyd Webber’s gorgeous score and Maria Björnson’s fabulously beautiful design, so brilliantly staged by Hal Prince and Gillian Lynne.

The success of the show has become the stuff of theatrical legend so Andrew and I felt we needed to create a really special performance to celebrate the 25th anniversary.

One of the great strengths of The Phantom of the Opera is that being set in an opera house, its production is totally theatrical. So we felt that there could be no better 19th Century theatrical auditorium in London for this occasion than the Royal Albert Hall. With its Victorian red plush and celebrated magnificent organ it is the perfect place for The Phantom to haunt. Though this special staging will naturally be drawn from the brilliant original, it will be both a spectacular and unique
production with a cast and orchestra of over 200 headed by Ramin Karimloo and Sierra Boggess. Both artists have been an outstanding ‘Phantom’ and ‘Christine’ in recent productions and have also enjoyed huge success together as the stars of Love Never Dies.

I have no doubt that these three performances at the Royal Albert Hall will be a thrilling celebration of the Music of the Night.”

THE PHANTOM OF THE OPERA became the longest running show in Broadway history on 9 January 2006 when it celebrated its 7,486th performance, surpassing the previous record holder “Cats”. This coincided with the Broadway and the US national touring company celebrating an unprecedented 20,000 performances in the United States. In October 2010 the London production celebrated its 10,000th performance.

THE PHANTOM OF THE OPERA has won over 50 major theatre awards, including seven Tonys on Broadway and three Olivier Awards in the West End. It won the ‘Most Popular Musical Audience Award’, voted by the public, in the 2002 Laurence Olivier Awards. THE PHANTOM OF THE OPERA, which opened at Her Majesty’s Theatre on 9 October 1986 starred Michael Crawford as ‘The Phantom’ and Sarah Brightman as ‘Christine.’ It is produced by Cameron Mackintosh and The Really Useful Theatre Company Limited.

Worldwide, THE PHANTOM OF THE OPERA has grossed over £3.2 billion. The box office revenues are higher than any film or stage play in history, including “Titanic”, “ET” and “Star Wars”. It has been seen in 145 cities in 27 countries and played to over 100 million people. THE PHANTOM OF THE OPERA is currently showing in London, New York, Budapest, Las Vegas, and Kyoto.

Release issued by: Raw PR

2011年10月8日 星期六

有些圖書館必須關閉?JG Frazer's The Golden Bough.金枝

JG Frazer's The Golden Bough.金枝

2011/10/9 戴老師說 他以前到 bbc 中文網 看過
英國窮 有些圖書館必須關閉 討論者有一計 說要將該圖書館的書都借出來

我用"bbc 中文網 英國圖書館關閉" 查不到相關資訊

The Journal of a Tour to the Hebrides/ Poetry Made...

The Journal of a Tour to the Hebrides/ Poetry Made...

2011年10月7日 星期五

英國的科學--幾個重要的硏究機關/ 〈英國超市-市集基本介紹:倫敦篇〉

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這是一本好書 雖然各組織只講至1940年而已英國的科學--幾個重要的硏究機關:
皇家學院48頁/ 格林威基皇家天文台 45頁/ 英國的農業研究--樂桑斯特實驗戰30頁

馬丁(Thomas Martin), 準兹(Harold Spencer Jones),拉塞爾(John E. Russell)撰 李曉舫譯
臺一版 臺北市|c臺灣商務|d民65 1976 [6],126面|d18公分

"Sir Harold Spencer Jones, 1890-1960". Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society of Canada 55: 117. Bibl code:1961JRASC..55..117S. Página visitada em 2008-02-24.

2011年10月5日 星期三

Bloody Awful 英國航空公司BA

譬如說 哈佛大學企業管理評論文集 (領導學 台北:天下文化 2000 ) 提到英國航空公司BA 有人稱它是Bloody Awful (頁182)
翻譯的人照普通義亂翻成 "血腥恐怖"
這bloody在英國的歷史悠久 讀者可參看諸如The New Oxford American Dictionary 等處的說明

Chiefly British Slang. Used as an intensive: "Everyone wants to have a convict in his bloody family tree" (Robert Hughes).

3 ((主に英話))いまわしい;べらぼうな;ひどい;まったくの.
(1)直接表現をはばかってb-y, b-dyと伏せ字で書かれることもある. (2)単なる強調にも用いる
You bloody villain!
こんちくしょう, この野郎
What the bloody hell are you saying?

*** 只舉此例 頁191的Moment of Truth 類似 這多是有文化意義的詞