2011年10月27日 星期四

Britain sleepwalks towards break-up

Little England: Britain sleepwalks towards break-up

Alex Salmond addressed the Scottish National party's annual conference the other day. ​​Few beyond Scotland will have noticed. That is a pity. As David Cameron's Conservatives resume their obsessive debate about leaving Europe, Mr Salmond is advancing Scotland's departure from Britain.

亞歷克斯•薩爾蒙德(Alex Salmond)日前在蘇格蘭民族黨(SNP)年度大會上發表了講話。在蘇格蘭以外,肯定沒什麼人注意這次講話。這真令人遺憾。就在戴維•卡梅倫(David Cameron)的保守黨(Conservatives)再次一門心思圍繞脫離歐盟展開爭論時,薩爾蒙德正在推動蘇格蘭脫離英國。

North and south of the border with England, the SNP leader is a grown up among adolescents. Alone among Britain's party leaders, he has the confidence and guile to change the political weather. As Scotland's first minister he is running rings around unionist opponents in Edinburgh and Westminster.


Mr Cameron is comfortable in 10 Downing Street. Labour's Ed Miliband is settling in for what could be an uncomfortably long spell as opposition leader. Nick Clegg has lost the haunted expression he wore during the Liberal Democrats first year in coalition. These are not leaders, though, who rewrite the terms of political debate.

卡梅倫在唐寧街10號過得優哉游哉。工黨(Labour)的埃德•米利班德(Ed Miliband)正在適應自己的反對黨領袖身份,因為他可能會在一個長得令人心煩的時期內扮演這一角色。尼克•克萊格(Nick Clegg)的臉上已經不再掛著他在自民黨(Liberal Democrats)進入聯合政府頭一年時展現出的那種焦慮表情。不過,他們都不是那類改寫政治辯論內容的領袖。

Mr Salmond is in a different class. You don't have to like or agree with him to acknowledge he has recast the argument about the 300-year-old union binding Scotland to England. Will Scotland still be tied to its southern neighbour in, say, 15 years hence? I wouldn't bet on it.

薩爾蒙德則是另一類領袖。你也許不喜歡他或者不贊同他,但你仍然會承認,他改寫了圍繞蘇格蘭-英格蘭聯盟的辯論。 300年來,這個聯盟一直把這兩個王國綁在一起。若干年後,比如說15年後,蘇格蘭還會與它南邊的鄰居綁在一起嗎?我不敢肯定。

At the very least, the SNP is leading Scotland to self-rule in all but foreign affairs – an autonomy comparable to that enjoyed by Catalonia. Many will think this is no bad thing – for the English or the Scots. But surely the relationship is worthy of serious discussion across Britain? It would be curious were the union to sleepwalk towards break-up.


Unionists are doing their best to assist Mr Salmond. The voting system for the Edinburgh parliament was designed to prevent the SNP from ever winning a governing majority. Mr Salmond has now secured just such a position. The electoral checks and balances failed to anticipate the self -destructive capacity of the unionist parties.


The rot began to set in for Conservatives, of course, during Margaret Thatcher's heyday. ​​But the big failure since has been the Scottish Tories' unwillingness to adjust to devolution. Decisions about health, education and welfare – things that matter to voters – are now taken in Edinburgh. Tories invite the charge of irrelevance by talking about nothing but the union.

當然,保守黨的衰落在瑪格麗特•撒切爾(Margaret Thatcher)的鼎盛時期就開始了。但蘇格蘭保守黨在那之後的重大失誤,是不願針對英國政府向蘇格蘭移交部分權力作出調整、以適應這一現實。現在,蘇格蘭關於醫療、教育和福利(這些都是與選民息息相關的事務)的決策,都是在愛丁堡做出的。保守黨卻除了蘇格蘭-英格蘭聯合議題什麼也不談,難怪選民批評他們“離題萬里”。

Labour has been laid low by hubris. Gordon Brown saw Scotland as a personal fiefdom. It sustained Labour's (disproportionately Scottish) politicians at Westminster. The party's best and brightest from north of the border would not waste their time in local politics when they could play on a British stage.

工黨則敗於傲慢。戈登•布朗(Gordon Brown)視蘇格蘭為個人封地。這種傲慢使得工黨(工黨內的蘇格蘭人多得離譜)的政治家們不願離開威斯敏斯特。當有機會在英國的舞台上施展拳腳時,那些最出色、最聰明的蘇格蘭工黨成員是不會把時間浪費在蘇格蘭地方政治上的。

Unsurprisingly Scottish voters have woken up to the insult. Why should they back a party that treats their parliament as a parish council? Even now, leading Scottish Labour figures such as Jim Murphy and Douglas Alexander prefer opposition at Westminster to a shot at the top job in Edinburgh.

面對這種侮辱,難怪蘇格蘭選民會醒悟過來。他們為什麼要支持一個把他們的議會當作教區委員會(parish council)的政黨呢?即使是現在,像吉姆•墨菲(Jim Murphy)和道格拉斯•亞歷山大(Douglas Alexander)這樣的蘇格蘭工黨頭面人物,也仍然更願意呆在威斯敏斯特當反對黨,而不是在愛丁堡爭當執政黨

The Lib Dems are paying a price for throwing in their lot with Mr Cameron. Mr Clegg wants to show that the party can shoulder responsibility at Westminster. A noble ambition. But there are better ways to win friends in Scotland.


None of this is to deny Mr Salmond's achievement in taking nationalism from the margins to the mainstream of Scottish politics. Not too long ago much of polite society in Edinburgh, Glasgow or Aberdeen saw the SNP as a collection of leftish cranks. Now it has begun to look like the party of the establishment.


This is not to say the business and professional classes have embraced separatism. My Scottish friends always draw an important distinction. They can vote for the SNP in Scotland while backing unionist parties in British general elections. Mr Salmond cannot be sure of winning if the choice posed in his promised referendum is a straightforward one between the status quo and independence.


Now, though, we know that there will be a third option. Mr Salmond used his conference speech to throw his weight behind a three-question plebiscite – with the third option providing for what is called “devolution max”. The implication is that the return to Scotland of full control over the economy, spending, taxation and borrowing would represent a moderate third way.


It would be nothing of the sort. Devolution max would put Scotland on the threshold of independence. It would demand a rewriting of the constitutional settlement that would inevitably leave many Scots asking why not independence. The fact that such an arrangement is presented as a “ sensible compromise” speaks to Mr Salmond's political genius in reframing the debate.

事情決非如此。 “最大限度移交權力”將把蘇格蘭推到獨立的臨界點。它要求對憲法性共識進行改寫,最終會不可避免地會讓許多蘇格蘭人自問:為什麼不干脆獨立呢?薩爾蒙德將這種安排稱為“明智的妥協”,這是他在重構這場辯論中表現出的政治天賦的明證。

For many in M​​r Cameron's party, however, it seems that severing ties with Brussels is more important than preserving them with Edinburgh. Before they know it, the sceptics may find themselves demanding England's rather than Britain'sdeparture from the European Union. Perhaps they will call themselves Little Englanders.

然而,對保守黨中的許多人來說,斬斷與布魯塞爾的聯繫似乎比維持與愛丁堡的聯繫更為重要。這些懷疑論者可能會在不知不覺中發現,他們的訴求變成了要英格蘭而不是要英國脫離歐盟。或許那時,他們得稱自己為“小英格蘭”人(Little England,與Great Britain即“大不列顛”相對——譯者註)。