2013年9月7日 星期六

Mapping the Blitz 英國戰時日記匯總.


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日期: 1940年9月7日至1941年5月10日
地點:  英國
結果: 倫敦市民的嚴重傷亡、戰略上擊敗納粹德國
英國 英國 納粹德國 納粹德國
義大利 義大利王國[1]
Anti-Aircraft Command
Balloon Command
148 Coastal Command aircraft

倫敦轟炸The Blitz)是指在第二次世界大戰納粹德國英國首都倫敦實施的戰略轟炸。德國對英國的轟炸發生在1940年9月7日1941年5月10日間,轟炸範圍遍及英國的各大城市和工業中心,但以倫敦受創最為嚴重。一直到不列顛戰役結束,倫敦已被轟炸超過76個晝夜,超過4.3萬名市民死亡,並有約10萬幢房屋被摧毀。倫敦因此成為第二次世界大戰期間遭受轟炸最為嚴重的三座城市之一(其他分別是柏林重慶)。

Graphic detail

Charts, maps and infographics

Mapping the Blitz

Echoes of an air raid

Dec 7th 2012, 19:06 by P.K.
A NAGGING mystery has bothered me since moving into a ground-floor flat seven years ago. On a North London street lined with typical Victorian townhouses, the adjoining terrace house has a modern brick front and lacks the customary bay windows. In addition, there is extra, modern brickwork at the back and strange black patterns seared into the masonry that look suspiciously like blast marks.
I have long wondered if they were the scars from a bomb dropped during the second world war. But no amount of online searching offered any evidence to support this. What I did discover a few years back was that the Metropolitan Archives in London hold hand-colored Ordnance Survey maps drawn up immediately at the end of the war, detailing the varying levels of architectural damage. They became the basis of the "Abercrombie Plan" for the rebuilding of London.
On your correspondents' "to-do list" is the perpetually unfulfilled intention to visit the archives in the hope of finally discovering the history behind of the strange "enhancements" to the building. So it was with a strange feeling of satisfaction—if that is the right word for the atrocity of the Blitz in which 20,000 people were killed—that I came across a website that went live today called Bomb Sight. It has geo-referenced maps from The National Archive and plotted every bomb that fell on what was then the County of London between October 1940 and June 1941 with a red marker (an example is below).

The site allows the amateur historian or researcher to "explore statistics for different areas and see how many bombs fell in different wards and boroughs in London," and it includes extra information in pop-up windows, such as images and personal testimonials. The sheer volume of clustered little red symbols is breathtaking and horrifying. It brings home the scale of the onslaught that London endured. One is forced to pause, but then, as curiosity gets the better of you, one begins to drill down. Just as with Google's Street View, if you're a London resident the first location you probably look up is your own road. The project is funded by Jisc, a charity for education and research related to digital technology.
And the answer to the question that I harboured for so long? It turns out that my street had been bombed in the 1940s. But as I discovered with an equally strange sense of disappointment, the bomb symbol plotted on the map was situated at the opposite end of the road from my home, which would explain the double sized garden that now backs onto a house there. On further inspection, when I clicked on the symbol itself, the information was even more vague: "High-Explosive Bomb recorded close to...."
"Close to"? Hmmm. Perhaps, in the chaos at the time, an accurate location was never recorded for the exact building. Next door could still have been the actual site of the strike. Maybe I'll never know. As one who works with maps, I know that it is often better to go to the original source material. I won't cross that trip to the archives off my to-do list just yet.