2009年4月5日 星期日

Arundels, Wardour Castle

Arundel, Henry Fitz Alan, 12th earl of (1512-80). Arundel steered a dextrous course through the rapids of mid-Tudor politics. He was in favour with Henry VIII, served with distinction against the French, and was awarded the Garter. During the reign of Edward VI Arundel was at odds with the duke of Northumberland and spent a year in the Tower. In 1553 he ostensibly supported Lady Jane Grey, but took out an insurance by reporting everything to Mary. Under Mary he was Lord Steward and, as a fellow-catholic, once more in favour. In Elizabeth's reign, he was mentioned as a possible husband. But he was implicated in the Ridolfi plot in 1571, and in the later 1570s lived in quiet retirement.

Pamphlet featuring the portrait and signature of Henry FitzAlan, 19th Earl of Arundel

Henry FitzAlan, 19th Earl of Arundel (c.1511 – 24 February 1580) was an English nobleman, who over his long life assumed a prominent place at the court of all the later Tudor sovereigns, probably the only person to do so. (Note that some sources number him as 12th Earl of Arundel.)

He was the only son of William FitzAlan, 18th Earl of Arundel, and his second wife Anne Percy, daughter of Henry Percy, 4th Earl of Northumberland, and was named for Henry VIII, who personally stood as his godfather at his baptism.

At 15, Arundel became a page at king Henry's court. When he came of age, in 1533, he was summoned to Parliament as Lord Maltravers, a subsidiary title of his father, who was still alive. He attended the trials of Anne Boleyn and her alleged lover Lord Rochford in 1536.

In 1540 he was appointed deputy of Calais. He remained there, improving the fortifications at his own expense, until his father's death in 1543/4. He returned to England to assume the earldom, and was made a Knight of the Garter. War with France soon brought him back to the continent, where he spent much of 1544. He then returned to England, where the king appointed him Lord Chamberlain.

After Henry's death in 1547, Arundel was Lord High Constable at Edward VI's coronation. He continued as Lord Chamberlain, and in addition, by the terms of Henry's will, was designated one of the council of 12 assistant executors. The advent of the new king's uncle Edward Seymour (later Duke of Somerset) as Lord Protector negated Arundel's influence however, and he soon became a prominent advocate of Seymour's removal in favor of John Dudley, Earl of Warwick (later Duke of Northumberland).

Seymour was in fact deposed and sent to the Tower of London in 1549, with Arundel and Warwick among the leaders of the new governing group. Warwick soon became jealous of Arundel's influence, created a series of trumped-up charges, and had him removed from office and placed under house arrest. Arundel was eventually cleared of the charges, but the experience pushed him into the camp of the Duke of Somerset (who had been released from the tower). When Somerset was again arrested in 1551, Arundel was implicated in some of his plots, and was himself arrested and imprisoned for a year. He was eventually pardoned from these charges (whose truth was again somewhat dubious) and returned to his place on the governing council.

He found the council contemplating the succession in view of the declining health of King Edward. Arundel opposed Northumberland's plan to declare the king's sisters illegitimate, but after Edward's death he ostensibly went along with the council as it prepared to proclaim Lady Jane Grey the new sovereign. Meanwhile, he secretly wrote to Princess Mary, informing her of her brother's death (which was not yet public knowledge) and warning her of the plans afoot to bypass her. He continued to publicly support Lady Jane, but at the same time, after secret meetings with other supporters of Mary, arranged for the proclamation of Mary as queen by the citizens of London. Taking the great seal, he then rode off to Framlingham, where Mary was staying.

At Mary's coronation, Arundel was for the second time High Constable, and was then appointed Lord Steward of the royal household. He served in various roles in her court, being, for example, one of the nobles who received her husband Philip II of Spain when he landed at Southampton.

Although Queen Elizabeth did not trust him, he was too powerful to be slighted or ignored, and so he was retained in his various offices when she ascended the throne. For the third time, he had a high place at a royal coronation.

Arundel took part in some of the many conspiracies of Elizabeth's reign, and, while he was at times placed under house arrest, he retained his properties and titles.

Arundel married twice. His first wife was Katherine, daughter of Thomas Grey, 2nd Marquess of Dorset and Margaret Wotton. By her he had one son, Henry Lord Maltravers (1538-56), and 2 daughters: Jane (d. 1576/7), who married John Lord Lumley, and Mary (d. 1557), who married Thomas Howard, 4th Duke of Norfolk, and whose son Philip, eventually inherited the Earldom of Arundel.

His second wife was Mary, daughter of Sir John Arundell of a prominent Cornish family, and widow of Richard Ratcliffe, 1st Earl of Sussex. They had no children.

Arundel's portrait was painted several times, including once by Hans Holbein and by Hans Eworth; see Edward Chaney, The Evolution of the Grand Tour, 2nd ed (London, 2000), p. 8.


Henry Fitzalan


Twelfth Earl of Arundel, b. about 1511; d. in London, 24 Feb., 1580 (O.S. 1579). Son of William, eleventh earl, and Lady Anne Percy, he was godson to Henry VIII, in whose palace he was educated. From 1540 he was governor of Calais till 1543, when he succeeded to the earldom. In 1544 he beseiged and took Boulogne, being made lord-chamberlain as a reward. In the reign of Edward VI he opposed Protector Somerset and supported Warwick, who eventually unjustly accused him of peculation and removed him from the council. On the death of Edward he abandoned the cause of Lady Jane Grey and proclaimed Mary as queen. Throughout her reign he was in favour as lord-steward and was employed in much diplomatic business. Even under Elizabeth he at first retained his offices and power though distrusted by her ministers. Yet he was too powerful to attack, and, being a widower, was considered as a possible consort for the queen. But in 1564 he fell into disgrace, andElizabeth did not again employ him till 1568. Being the leader of the Catholic party, he desired a marriage between Mary, Queen of Scots, and his son-in-law, the Duke of Norfolk, but was too cautious to commit himself, so that even after the futile northern rebellion of 1569 he was recalled to the council. But the discovery of the Ridolfi conspiracy, in 1571, again led to his confinement, and he spent the rest of his life in retirement.

THIS STORY LAST UPDATED: 24 February 2004 1305 GMT
Ten year house archive now complete

The new Wardour Castle
The new Wardour Castle

Lovers of historic properties will be interested to learn that the archive for a significant Wiltshire property is now complete, providing a valuable insight into 18th century E

The sumptuous designs for the new Wardour Castle form the centrepiece of the archive, which has been conserved and catalogued by staff at the Wiltshire and Swindon Record Office in Trowbridge.

The team has spent more than a decade cataloguing, conserving and preserving the Arundell family archive and have now completed the marathon task.

The Arundells were a wealthy, aristocratic Wiltshire family who bought the original Wardour Castle - now a picturesque ruin - in 1547.

Old Wardour Castle

Old Wardour Castle

The old castle was severely damaged during a Civil War siege and was later abandoned.

The Arundells were supporters of the Royalist cause and the castle was first seized by Parliamentary forces and then reclaimed by the family - but only at the cost of its destruction.

The magnificent new Wardour Castle was built in the popular Palladian or classical style during 1770s.

The Arundell archive includes detailed plans for the new Wardour Castle, providing a fascinating insight into European architectural styles of the period.

The architect, Giacomo Quarenghi, who was later the principal architect of the then Russian capital, St Petersburg, worked on a spectacular chapel for the new house, as the Arundells were an important Catholic family.

quotemarkThe plans for the new Wardour Castle are incredibly detailed... they contribute to our understanding of European architecture and design during the 18th century...quotemark

Steve Hobbs, County Archivist

The archive contains around 500 drawings and plans. Preservation work involved removing the drawings from acidic backing paper and placing them in polyester film.

Several large estate maps - including one of Wardour Park from 1753 - were also conserved, and these items can now all be seen by members of the public.

The catalogue for the archive is now available on the Internet at www.a2a.pro.gov.uk.

Steve Hobbs, archivist at Wiltshire County Council, said: "The plans for the new Wardour Castle are incredibly detailed.

"They contribute to our understanding of European architecture and design during the 18th century, as they include a wide range of ideas and schemes from which the actual plans were selected."

The new Wardour Castle was sold by the family after the death of the last Lord Arundell - who was a prisoner of war in the notorious Colditz Castle during the Second World War - and it then became a private school. In recent years, the building has been turned into luxury apartments.

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