2014年5月31日 星期六

English Universities Losing International Students 赴英留學人數近30年來首次下降

English Universities Losing International Students

International Education May 16, 2014


海外教育 2014年05月16日
Chris Radburn/Press Association, via Associated Press
The number of international students enrolling in English universities has dropped for the first time in nearly three decades, interrupting a long-term trend of double-digit growth.
A new report by the Higher Education Funding Council for England examines recent shifts in enrollment patterns and discusses their possible causes. The nations that make up the United Kingdom have individual responsibility for higher education, and the report addresses only the situation in England.
英格蘭高等教育基金管理委員會(Higher Education Funding Council for England)的一份最新報告檢視了近期招生形勢的變化,並對可能的原因進行了討論。英國的聯邦國對高等教育是獨立負責的,這份報告所分析的只是英格蘭的情況。
Britain attracts more international students than any country except the United States and puts a figure for the overall value to its economy of foreign currency earnings from higher education at about £10 billion, or nearly $17 billion.
The report says that the number of students enrolling in full-time “taught graduate programs,” which include many master’s programs, declined 1 percent from the 2010-11 to the 2012-13 academic years. That decline is especially worrying for institutions because those programs tend to be dominated by foreign students. According to the report, in 2012-13, 74 percent of entrants to full-time master’s programs were from outside Britain.
該報告指出,就讀於包括許多碩士項目在內 的全日制「授課式研究生項目」的學生人數在2010-11學年至2012-2013學年之間下降了1個百分點。這對教育機構來說尤其令人擔心,因為讀這些 項目的主要是外國學生。根據報告,在2012-13學年,74%的全日制碩士項目的學生都來自英國以外的國家。
Master’s programs, which are usually a year long, are often a significant source of income for universities, as well as a potential future source of teaching staff members. Their short duration, relative to similar programs elsewhere, puts British universities under more pressure to maintain international recruitment levels.
According to Janet Ilieva, the author of the funding council report, a recent analysis by the council indicates that there is a high progression rate from full-time taught graduate programs to doctoral programs, so the drop could be a worrisome sign for future teaching and research capacity. “The implication is that this is putting the long-term viability of certain subjects under threat,” she said.
基金委員會這份報告的作者珍妮特·伊利耶 娃(Janet Ilieva)表示,該委員會最近的一個分析指出,全日制授課式研究生項目的學生有很大可能會繼續在博士項目中深造,所以這些項目的學生人數下降可能是未 來教學與研究人才數量方面一個令人憂慮的信號。「它背後的含義是,某些特定學科的長期發展能力正面臨威脅,」她說。
Another development the report highlights is a sharp drop in the number of full-time undergraduate entrants from other European Union countries. Those students pay the same tuition as domestic British students, for whom the government caps the amount of tuition that universities can charge. Their number fell by a quarter in 2012-13, when the tuition cap at most universities in England rose to £9,000, or around $15,000. The report identifies the tuition increase as the likely cause of the decline.
報告強調的另一個變化,是全日制本科教育 中其他歐盟國家學生人數的顯著減少。這些學生與英國學生所付的學費相同,不過後者的學費是由政府代繳的。2012-13學年,當英格蘭大多數大學的學費上 漲至9000英鎊,即1.5萬美元左右時,歐盟其他國家學生的人數下降了四分之一。報告認定,學費上漲很可能是學生人數下降的原因。
The last time international student numbers decreased in Britain was in the early 1980s, when universities began charging international students tuition.
The report also calls attention to the growing numbers of Chinese students at British universities. They now represent nearly a quarter of all students enrolled in full-time master’s programs and make up the second-largest cohort after British students, at 26 percent.
That increase has taken place as the numbers of students from India, Pakistan, and Iran, which historically sent large cohorts of graduate students to Britain, have declined. The numbers of students coming from Pakistan and India have halved since 2010, even as entries from other countries have increased, according to the report.
Those developments paint a worrying picture for British universities, which seem to have borne the brunt of a confluence of events. “We can’t point to causality,” Ms. Ilieva said, but the timing of the shifts suggest some factors that might be at play.
Immigration, for one, has become a contentious political issue in Britain in recent years, and the government’s efforts to limit immigration figures have at times conflicted with the aims of universities. Universities UK, the lobbying organization for vice chancellors, has opposed the government’s approach to immigration, warning that including students in migration figures would be detrimental to universities.
比如說移民問題,近年來在英國一直都是頗 受爭議的政治議題,政府限制移民人數的努力經常會與高校的目標有所衝突。英國大學組織(Universities UK)是大學校長組成的一個遊說組織,它對政府的移民政策持反對意見,該組織警告道,把學生包含在移民統計人數內的做法對大學來說十分不利。
Policy revisions, such as the elimination of work entitlement for foreign students at private institutions, a move designed to curb abuses by bogus institutions, also had an effect on international enrollments.
Those shifts, all of which may have suggested to international students that Britain was becoming less hospitable to foreigners, coincided with efforts among Britain’s main competitors for foreign students to ease the path for them.
Commenting on the funding council report, Nicola Dandridge, the chief executive of Universities UK, noted that at a time of growing international demand for higher education, “we should be seeing a significant rise in international recruitment figures, given the global standing of our universities. At the same time, competitor countries, who are actively promoting policies to encourage international students, have seen rises in international-student numbers.”
在評價基金委員會這份報告時,英國大學組 織執行主席尼科拉·丹德里奇(Nicola Dandridge)指出,這一切都發生在國際上對高等教育的需求增長的時代,「鑒於英國大學在全球的地位, 我們本來應該看到國際招生數量的顯著增長。而在同一時間,與我們競爭的國家在切實地推行鼓勵國際學生的政策,因此他們真切地看到了國際學生人數的增長。」