2011年10月30日 星期日

U.K. Touts Its Cybersecurity Cred

U.K. Touts Its Cybersecurity Cred
While most governments have focused their response to cyberthreats on the military and national infrastructure, Britain also is focusing on ordinary business, touting Internet security as a competitive advantage.

2011年10月28日 星期五

Girls equal in British throne succession

BBC News - David Cameron proposes changes to royal succession

Girls equal in British throne succession

The Duke and Duchess of Cambridge If Prince William and Kate had a daughter first, she would take precedence over younger brothers

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Sons and daughters of any future UK monarch will have equal right to the throne, after Commonwealth leaders agreed to change succession laws.

The leaders of the 16 Commonwealth countries where the Queen is head of state unanimously approved the changes at a summit in Perth, Australia.

It means a first-born daughter of the Duke and Duchess of Cambridge would take precedence over younger brothers.

The ban on the monarch being married to a Roman Catholic was also lifted.

Under the old succession laws, dating back more than 300 years, the heir to the throne is the first-born son of the monarch. Only when there are no sons, as in the case of the Queen's father George VI, does the crown pass to the eldest daughter.

The succession changes will require a raft of historic legislation to be amended, including the 1701 Act of Settlement, the 1689 Bill of Rights and the Royal Marriages Act 1772.

The change to the Royal Marriages Act will end a position where every descendant of George II is legally required to seek the consent of the monarch before marrying.

In future, the requirement is expected to be limited to a small number of the sovereign's close relatives.


Equal rights for women in the British Monarchy? It's quite a change. The new rules will reverse 300 years of tradition, custom and law, so it's a big royal deal.

There have been at least 11 attempts to change the passage of succession down the years, but they've never got anywhere. Now, with the arrival of Kate and William on the public stage, a sense of urgency has overtaken the drag of inertia.

The leaders of the Commonwealth have, like David Cameron, recognised this and so decided to act, using Perth to give birth to these royal reforms.

The other modification, allowing future monarchs to marry Catholics, is just as radical, removing an anti-Catholic bias at the heart of the monarchy.

Will these changes make a difference? Potentially, yes, particularly the daughter/son succession one, especially if William and Kate's first-born is a girl. She could become queen and thereby alter the course of British history.

Announcing the succession changes, Prime Minister David Cameron said they would apply to descendents of the Prince of Wales. They will not be applied retrospectively.

"Put simply, if the Duke and Duchess of Cambridge were to have a little girl, that girl would one day be our queen," he said.

"The idea that a younger son should become monarch instead of an elder daughter simply because he is a man, or that a future monarch can marry someone of any faith except a Catholic - this way of thinking is at odds with the modern countries that we have become."

Australia's Prime Minister Julia Gillard said it was an extraordinary moment: "I'm very enthusiastic about it. You would expect the first Australian woman prime minister to be very enthusiastic about a change which equals equality for women in a new area."

She said the changes appeared to be straightforward. "But just because they seem straightforward to our modern minds doesn't mean that we should underestimate their historical significance, changing as they will for all time the way in which the monarchy works and changing its history."

But the campaign group Republic - which wants an elected head of state in Britain - said "nothing of substance" had been changed.

"The monarchy discriminates against every man, woman and child who isn't born into the Windsor family. To suggest that this has anything to do with equality is utterly absurd," spokesman Graham Smith said.

Queen's speech

On scrapping the ban on future monarchs marrying Roman Catholics, Mr Cameron said: "Let me be clear, the monarch must be in communion with the Church of England because he or she is the head of that Church. But it is simply wrong they should be denied the chance to marry a Catholic if they wish to do so. After all, they are already quite free to marry someone of any other faith."

David Cameron: ''The idea a younger son should become monarch instead of an elder daughter simply because he's a man... is at odds with the modern countries we have become''

The Roman Catholic Archbishop of Westminster, Vincent Nichols, said the elimination of the "unjust discrimination" against Catholics would be widely welcomed.

"At the same time I fully recognise the importance of the position of the established church [the Church of England] in protecting and fostering the role of faith in our society today," he said.

Scotland's First Minister Alex Salmond also welcomed the lifting of the ban but said it was "deeply disappointing" that Roman Catholics were still unable to ascend to the throne.

"It surely would have been possible to find a mechanism which would have protected the status of the Church of England without keeping in place an unjustifiable barrier on the grounds of religion in terms of the monarchy," he said.

"It is a missed opportunity not to ensure equality of all faiths when it comes to the issue of who can be head of state."

In her opening speech to the summit, the Queen did not directly mention the royal succession laws, but said women should have a greater role in society.

"It encourages us to find ways to show girls and women to play their full part," she said.

Previous attempts

The BBC's royal correspondent, Nicholas Witchell, said this was a hint that the Queen herself backed the change.

The Queen will celebrate her Diamond Jubilee next year and there are already two generations of kings-in-waiting - Prince Charles and his son Prince William.

In January 2011, Labour MP Keith Vaz tabled a Succession to the Crown Bill in the Commons to end gender discrimination in the succession to the throne.

He said his bill - due for its second reading on 25 November - could be used to introduce the reforms announced in Perth.

"As a society that values gender equality so highly, this is a long overdue," he said. "We will now have modern laws that fit our modern monarchy."

The royal author Robert Hardman said there had been 11 attempts in recent years by individual MPs and peers to change the succession laws.

The laws are not a matter for the 54-nation Commonwealth as a whole, only for the 16 countries which have the Queen as their head of state, known as realms.

These are Britain, Australia, New Zealand, Canada, Jamaica, Antigua and Barbuda, Belize, Papua New Guinea, St Christopher and Nevis, St Vincent and the Grenadines, Tuvalu, Barbados, Grenada, Solomon Islands, St Lucia and the Bahamas.

Chogm summit

Mr Cameron said the realms would work to implement the changes but that for historic reasons the UK would have to publish its legislation first.

The necessary changes to laws will be introduced in the next session of Parliament and New Zealand will lead a working group co-ordinating the measures across the other nations.

In his speech, the prime minister also praised the Queen's 60 years of public service and announced the creation of a Diamond Jubilee Trust to help those in need across the Commonwealth. The trust will be chaired by former Prime Minister Sir John Major.

Mr Cameron said Britain would make a multi-million pound donation to the grant-making body and encouraged other commonwealth nations to do the same.

The Commonwealth Heads of Government Meetings (Chogm) are held every two years, and present an opportunity for the 54 nations with current or former ties to Britain to discuss a range of issues.

The Chogm summit will also discuss economic growth, climate change and human rights at this year's meeting.

2011年10月27日 星期四

Britain sleepwalks towards break-up

Little England: Britain sleepwalks towards break-up

Alex Salmond addressed the Scottish National party's annual conference the other day. ​​Few beyond Scotland will have noticed. That is a pity. As David Cameron's Conservatives resume their obsessive debate about leaving Europe, Mr Salmond is advancing Scotland's departure from Britain.

亞歷克斯•薩爾蒙德(Alex Salmond)日前在蘇格蘭民族黨(SNP)年度大會上發表了講話。在蘇格蘭以外,肯定沒什麼人注意這次講話。這真令人遺憾。就在戴維•卡梅倫(David Cameron)的保守黨(Conservatives)再次一門心思圍繞脫離歐盟展開爭論時,薩爾蒙德正在推動蘇格蘭脫離英國。

North and south of the border with England, the SNP leader is a grown up among adolescents. Alone among Britain's party leaders, he has the confidence and guile to change the political weather. As Scotland's first minister he is running rings around unionist opponents in Edinburgh and Westminster.


Mr Cameron is comfortable in 10 Downing Street. Labour's Ed Miliband is settling in for what could be an uncomfortably long spell as opposition leader. Nick Clegg has lost the haunted expression he wore during the Liberal Democrats first year in coalition. These are not leaders, though, who rewrite the terms of political debate.

卡梅倫在唐寧街10號過得優哉游哉。工黨(Labour)的埃德•米利班德(Ed Miliband)正在適應自己的反對黨領袖身份,因為他可能會在一個長得令人心煩的時期內扮演這一角色。尼克•克萊格(Nick Clegg)的臉上已經不再掛著他在自民黨(Liberal Democrats)進入聯合政府頭一年時展現出的那種焦慮表情。不過,他們都不是那類改寫政治辯論內容的領袖。

Mr Salmond is in a different class. You don't have to like or agree with him to acknowledge he has recast the argument about the 300-year-old union binding Scotland to England. Will Scotland still be tied to its southern neighbour in, say, 15 years hence? I wouldn't bet on it.

薩爾蒙德則是另一類領袖。你也許不喜歡他或者不贊同他,但你仍然會承認,他改寫了圍繞蘇格蘭-英格蘭聯盟的辯論。 300年來,這個聯盟一直把這兩個王國綁在一起。若干年後,比如說15年後,蘇格蘭還會與它南邊的鄰居綁在一起嗎?我不敢肯定。

At the very least, the SNP is leading Scotland to self-rule in all but foreign affairs – an autonomy comparable to that enjoyed by Catalonia. Many will think this is no bad thing – for the English or the Scots. But surely the relationship is worthy of serious discussion across Britain? It would be curious were the union to sleepwalk towards break-up.


Unionists are doing their best to assist Mr Salmond. The voting system for the Edinburgh parliament was designed to prevent the SNP from ever winning a governing majority. Mr Salmond has now secured just such a position. The electoral checks and balances failed to anticipate the self -destructive capacity of the unionist parties.


The rot began to set in for Conservatives, of course, during Margaret Thatcher's heyday. ​​But the big failure since has been the Scottish Tories' unwillingness to adjust to devolution. Decisions about health, education and welfare – things that matter to voters – are now taken in Edinburgh. Tories invite the charge of irrelevance by talking about nothing but the union.

當然,保守黨的衰落在瑪格麗特•撒切爾(Margaret Thatcher)的鼎盛時期就開始了。但蘇格蘭保守黨在那之後的重大失誤,是不願針對英國政府向蘇格蘭移交部分權力作出調整、以適應這一現實。現在,蘇格蘭關於醫療、教育和福利(這些都是與選民息息相關的事務)的決策,都是在愛丁堡做出的。保守黨卻除了蘇格蘭-英格蘭聯合議題什麼也不談,難怪選民批評他們“離題萬里”。

Labour has been laid low by hubris. Gordon Brown saw Scotland as a personal fiefdom. It sustained Labour's (disproportionately Scottish) politicians at Westminster. The party's best and brightest from north of the border would not waste their time in local politics when they could play on a British stage.

工黨則敗於傲慢。戈登•布朗(Gordon Brown)視蘇格蘭為個人封地。這種傲慢使得工黨(工黨內的蘇格蘭人多得離譜)的政治家們不願離開威斯敏斯特。當有機會在英國的舞台上施展拳腳時,那些最出色、最聰明的蘇格蘭工黨成員是不會把時間浪費在蘇格蘭地方政治上的。

Unsurprisingly Scottish voters have woken up to the insult. Why should they back a party that treats their parliament as a parish council? Even now, leading Scottish Labour figures such as Jim Murphy and Douglas Alexander prefer opposition at Westminster to a shot at the top job in Edinburgh.

面對這種侮辱,難怪蘇格蘭選民會醒悟過來。他們為什麼要支持一個把他們的議會當作教區委員會(parish council)的政黨呢?即使是現在,像吉姆•墨菲(Jim Murphy)和道格拉斯•亞歷山大(Douglas Alexander)這樣的蘇格蘭工黨頭面人物,也仍然更願意呆在威斯敏斯特當反對黨,而不是在愛丁堡爭當執政黨

The Lib Dems are paying a price for throwing in their lot with Mr Cameron. Mr Clegg wants to show that the party can shoulder responsibility at Westminster. A noble ambition. But there are better ways to win friends in Scotland.


None of this is to deny Mr Salmond's achievement in taking nationalism from the margins to the mainstream of Scottish politics. Not too long ago much of polite society in Edinburgh, Glasgow or Aberdeen saw the SNP as a collection of leftish cranks. Now it has begun to look like the party of the establishment.


This is not to say the business and professional classes have embraced separatism. My Scottish friends always draw an important distinction. They can vote for the SNP in Scotland while backing unionist parties in British general elections. Mr Salmond cannot be sure of winning if the choice posed in his promised referendum is a straightforward one between the status quo and independence.


Now, though, we know that there will be a third option. Mr Salmond used his conference speech to throw his weight behind a three-question plebiscite – with the third option providing for what is called “devolution max”. The implication is that the return to Scotland of full control over the economy, spending, taxation and borrowing would represent a moderate third way.


It would be nothing of the sort. Devolution max would put Scotland on the threshold of independence. It would demand a rewriting of the constitutional settlement that would inevitably leave many Scots asking why not independence. The fact that such an arrangement is presented as a “ sensible compromise” speaks to Mr Salmond's political genius in reframing the debate.

事情決非如此。 “最大限度移交權力”將把蘇格蘭推到獨立的臨界點。它要求對憲法性共識進行改寫,最終會不可避免地會讓許多蘇格蘭人自問:為什麼不干脆獨立呢?薩爾蒙德將這種安排稱為“明智的妥協”,這是他在重構這場辯論中表現出的政治天賦的明證。

For many in M​​r Cameron's party, however, it seems that severing ties with Brussels is more important than preserving them with Edinburgh. Before they know it, the sceptics may find themselves demanding England's rather than Britain'sdeparture from the European Union. Perhaps they will call themselves Little Englanders.

然而,對保守黨中的許多人來說,斬斷與布魯塞爾的聯繫似乎比維持與愛丁堡的聯繫更為重要。這些懷疑論者可能會在不知不覺中發現,他們的訴求變成了要英格蘭而不是要英國脫離歐盟。或許那時,他們得稱自己為“小英格蘭”人(Little England,與Great Britain即“大不列顛”相對——譯者註)。


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2011年10月25日 星期二

The Out of Asia season

This autumn, Sadler's Wells presents a collection of works from across Asia. The Out of Asia season brings together artists from China, Vietnam, Bangladesh, Japan and Taiwan.

倫敦沙德勒之井劇院(Sadler's Wells)舉辦《走出亞洲舞蹈季》,邀請亞洲國家和地區七個舞蹈團參加演出。北京當代芭蕾舞團演繹的現代芭蕾《霾》是參加演出的項目之一,它向外國觀眾展示了中國舞蹈的另外一面。

北京當代芭蕾舞團團長王媛媛由2009年中國汶川地震等諸多大事有感而發,創作了這部舞蹈作品。該作品 分為「燈」、「城」、「岸」三個章節以純粹的肢體語言,展現當下人們對經濟危機,環境危機的反應,反映了現代人對生命的反思,並進行內心探索的複雜過程。 這部作品融合了芭蕾舞和現代舞元素,表現形式非常抽像,這在一定程度上使西方觀眾更容易理解舞蹈的內涵。


2011年10月19日 星期三

Rising energy bills causing fuel poverty deaths 英國經濟不平等解剖


 倫敦政經學院接受英國政府委託,進行長達16個月的調查,2010年公布「英國經濟不平等解剖報告」(An Anatomy of Economic Inequality in the UK)。報告指出,2007到2008年,英國的收入不平等創下自第二次世界大戰以來最嚴重紀錄,收入在全國前10%的家庭,年收入至少85萬3000英 鎊(約新台幣4000萬元),而收入最低的10%,年收入僅8800英鎊,貧富的差距近100倍。




 研究人員進一步調查家庭的財富,全國前10%的高收入者,到退休時(約55到64歲),連同房地產與退休資產,財富達220萬英鎊,但收入在底層10%的家庭,只有8000英鎊,兩者天差地別 。

 英國研究種族平等的智庫「The Runnymede Trust 」政策研究主任歐瑪汗(Omar Khan)指出,英國少數族裔的財富普遍低於白人。根據就業與養老金部門的報告,60%的黑人及南亞人家庭沒有任何儲蓄,33%的白人家庭則都有儲蓄。

 2009年英國第一份財富與資產報告顯示,平均白人家庭約有22萬1000英鎊,加勒比海黑人家庭約有7萬 6000英鎊,孟加拉裔家庭2萬1000英鎊,非洲黑人家庭則是1萬5000英鎊。



 雪菲爾大學教授多林(Danny Dorling),在所著的「不公正:為何社會不公平持續存在」(Injustice: Why Social Inequality Persists)一書指出,倫敦是西方國家中,貧富差距最嚴重的城市。

 他指出,倫敦1/10最有錢的人,平均財富達93萬 3563英鎊,較最貧窮的1/10市民的3420英鎊,幾乎達 273倍。


 物質主義盛行使貧窮家庭父母面臨巨大壓力,他們擔心子女沒有和同學或朋友一樣的球鞋及電子用品,在同儕團體矮人一截,即使負債也會想辦法滿足子女的需要,以免遭「品牌霸凌」(brand bulling)。

 一位14歲的青少年告訴研究人員,不管你有沒有錢,都要裝得你有錢,你可能住在垃圾桶裡,但只要你有 iPod、黑莓機,你就可以被接受。


 倫敦政經學院教授貝爾(Brian Bell)指出,倫敦金融業支付員工高薪,是造成貧富差距擴大的主因。

 他在調查研究時發現,1998年金融業員工的平均薪資為15萬1000英鎊,是全國平均薪資的7.5倍,到了 2008年平均薪資提高到31萬4000英鎊,則是全國平均薪資的10倍。





Rising energy bills causing fuel poverty deaths

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Charlene Franklin talks to Simon Gompertz about fuel poverty: "There have been times when I wouldn't eat two or three times in the week"

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Thousands of people die each year from illnesses linked to fuel poverty, according to an independent report.

Professor John Hills has called for a new definition of the problem, which focuses on people with low incomes driven into poverty by high fuel bills.

His report found that in 2004, fuel-poor households faced a shortfall of £256 to heat their homes and avoid poverty, but in 2009 it was £402.

Recent bill increases may make the problem worse this year, he warned.

Fuel poverty gap

Fuel poverty gap

Graphic showing fuel poverty gap

The government commissioned Prof Hills to examine how serious a problem fuel poverty is and how it should be measured.

He argues that fuel poverty poses serious public health and environmental issues.

His report is the first to measure the shortfall that some households face in heating their homes, which he calls the fuel poverty gap.

Further increases in bills since then are likely to have widened this gap, he warned.


The report argued this shortfall had serious implications for health.

There are 27,000 extra deaths in the UK each winter compared to other times of year, according to figures from the Office of National Statistics. The report found most of this was due to cold weather.

That figure is one of the highest in Europe and worse than Finland, the Netherlands, Germany, Sweden, Norway and France.

Start Quote

There are people dying, maybe more people die each year than on the roads”

Prof John Hills

Prof Hills drew on a seperate independent report - the Marmot review - which found that about one-fifth of these additional winter deaths occurred in the coldest quarter of homes, with further evidence suggesting a link between fuel poverty and cold homes.

And an expert meeting of the World Health Organization suggested that about half of winter deaths are due to cold indoor rather than cold outdoor temperatures.

This meant, the Hills report concluded, that an estimated 2,700 people die each year because of health conditions, such as respiratory infections or cardiovascular problems, linked to fuel poverty.

"It's a very serious problem," said Prof Hills. "There are people dying, maybe more people dying each year than die on the roads, it's a problem of hardship for low-income families who are having to pay out more when they've got hard-to-heat houses and it's a problem for countering climate change."

Low-income households are unable to invest in energy efficiency measures, hindering efforts both to reduce their bills and to lower UK carbon emissions.

Changing definition

However, Prof Hills found that the way we define fuel poverty may need to change.

By the old definition, a household was defined as being in fuel poverty if 10% of its income was spent on fuel each year.

The latest figures from the Department of Energy and Climate change suggested four million English households fitted into this category in 2009, in a sharp increase from 1.2 million in 2003.

Estimates from the Centre for Sustainable Energy suggest that number has risen to 5.5 million for England and an estimate of 6.6 million for the UK.

But Prof Hills suggests the current definition did not focus tightly enough on fuel poverty.

Instead, he suggested people be defined as fuel-poor only if their bills were relatively high and if paying those bills would push them below the poverty line.

Start Quote

Insulating the homes of the poor is the only long term and sustainable solution”

Derek Lickorish Fuel Poverty Advisory Group

That would mean that in 2009, fewer people were classed as fuel-poor - 2.7 million in England.

However, the problem appears less variable, with roughly the same number categorised as fuel poor in 2003, more than double the estimate for that period on the current definition.

Government measures

The government says it is already taking measures to tackle the issue.

It has recently announced the Warm Homes Discount on energy bills, which includes reductions of about £120 to the poorest pensioners in addition to winter fuel payments.

Energy suppliers are also obliged to offer free or reduced packages on home insulation to some high-risk groups, using money recouped from a charge on energy bills.

However, some government measures, such as the Warm Front Scheme designed to help insulate low-income homes, are due to end next year.

Derek Lickorish, chair of the Government's Fuel Poverty Advisory Group (FPAG), called the figures for the number of deaths due to fuel poverty a "disgrace".

"Insulating the homes of the fuel poor is the only long-term and sustainable solution to solving this problem, but they will need financial help to make this happen and this takes time. Urgent action must start today," he said.

An opposition debate on fuel bills is due to take place on Wednesday.

Can you afford to heat your home? Are you in fuel poverty? Do any of your friends or family members suffer as a result of rising energy costs? Send us your stories using the form below.

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2011年10月17日 星期一

the London Beer Flood

with Beer
Was there really a time when beer flowed through the streets of London? Yes. But it wasn't necessarily a good thing. In the 19th century, beer fermented for months at a time in huge vats that rested on the roof of the Horse Shoe Brewery on Tottenham Court Road and Oxford Street. On October 17, 1814, the iron hoops supporting the largest vat — which held some 600,000 liters (160,000 gallons) of porter — collapsed under the weight. The vat burst and all the beer came gushing out, causing the vats nearby to explode as well. More than a million liters (265,000 gallons) of beer knocked down the 25-foot (7.6-meter) brick wall of the brewery and flooded the surrounding streets. Roofs collapsed and houses toppled. Nine people died, mostly due to drowning or from fatal injuries from passing timber. One man died of alcohol poisoning, after drinking too much of the beverage. Neighborhood residents rushed out with mugs, pots and buckets to collect the free beer. Though a lawsuit was brought against the brewery, the London Beer Flood was ruled an act of God and the brewery was not held legally responsible.

2011年10月14日 星期五

Occupy the London Stock Exchange

Tuesday 11 October 2011

Occupy the London Stock Exchange

Keep up to date at http://occupylondon.org.uk/

On October 15th we will be Occupying the London Stock Exchange. At the same time thousands continue to occupy Wall Street and hundreds of cities from Paris and Madrid to Buenos Aires and Caracas are staging actions and occupations together for a global day of action.

By reclaiming space in the face of the economic systems that have caused terrible injustices across the world, we can open up and engage our communities into public discussions. These assemblies will allow people to voice their ideas for how we can work towards a better future and help us create concrete demands to be met. A future free from austerity within a context of growing inequality, unemployment, tax injustice and a political elite who ignores its citizens. So it’s time for citizens to represent themselves. To work together to resist the government’s plans and to do this in solidarity with the hundreds of thousands of others around the world on the same day.

The problems we face in the UK echoes across the world. We are linked by the same root causes, so we cannot solve these problems in isolation. October 15th will be a global day of action calling for global change.

‘O-15: Unite for Global Change’ has been called by the ‘indignants’ movement in Spain, where thousands camped out in the squares for weeks, building massive popular pressure on the government. It inspired the current Wall Street occupation in New York, providing a space for the majority to resist the wishes of the greedy minority.

Join us at the London Stock Exchange to reclaim space and take part in workshops on topics ranging from Debt and The Spanish Indignants Movement to Fuel Poverty and Climate Justice. Contribute in the Open Assemblies and chant songs of solidarity with Samba bands. Exact times and locations to be announced soon.

OccupyLSX Facebook page: https://www.facebook.com/occupylondon
Twitter: @OccupyLSX (www.twitter.com/OccupyLSX)
hashtags #OccupyLSX #OccupyLondon

占領華爾街 戰場將擴到倫敦 【2011/10/14 10:20】


占領倫敦交易所(Occupy the London Stock Exchange)活動,10天前在臉書(Facebook)開始發動,號召支持者15日中午在倫敦交易所附近的聖保羅大教堂前集合,再展開遊行,但具體路線目前仍未確定。

參加活動策劃的柯文(Naomi Colvin)接受中央社記者訪問時說,參與策劃的人來自不同背景,大家都關切金融服務業在英國及全世界扮演的角色,例如2008年爆發的金融危機,以及多家金融機構嚴重經營不善,同時政府負債也因此增加。







PITY the world’s savers. Economists and other busybodies chide them for not spending more, thereby stimulating the economy. Meanwhile their pension schemes are steadily being made less generous, a process that will require them to save more, not less, if they want to enjoy a comfortable retirement. Britons now retiring on private pensions will receive an income 30% less than those who left work three years ago (see Buttonwood). When savers try to find a home for their money, they face daily headlines about bank bailouts, sovereign-debt crises and the possibility of another recession.



A trillion here, $500 billion there

The huge shortfalls in pension plans

THE pension hole just keeps getting bigger. The assets owned by pension schemes have generally been falling in price while their liabilities have been relentlessly rising. One of the culprits is quantitative easing (QE), a tactic devised by central banks to revive the economy.

The numbers can boggle the mind. Mercer, a consultancy, reckons the hole in final-salary corporate plans in America was $512 billion at the end of September, the highest figure since the second world war. The average corporate pension plan had a funding ratio (the proportion of liabilities covered by assets) of just 72%, down from 81% at the end of 2010. In Britain the Pension Protection Fund reported this week that the aggregate deficit of the schemes it insures stood at £196 billion ($309 billion) at the end of September; the average funding ratio was 83%.

Those numbers look tiddly beside the public-sector pension deficits. In 2009 Joshua Rauh of the Kellogg School of Management at Northwestern University and Robert Novy-Marx, then at the University of Chicago’s Booth School of Business, estimated that the deficit of American state and local-government pension plans was $3.1 trillion. Mr Rauh reckons that the deficit is now $4.4 trillion. In other words, a cool $1.3 trillion has been added in two years.

These figures will not be accepted by everyone. Many states still discount their pension liabilities by the assumed rate of return on their assets, often around 8%. But this is a highly dubious assumption. Government bodies still have to pay the pensions, regardless of whether they achieve those returns or not.

Instead, some Warren Buffett-like principles ought to apply. If a promise to pay someone money in the future isn’t a debt, what is it? And if a debt shouldn’t be recorded at cost, how should it be recorded? A company might borrow $50m in the bond markets to build a factory, after all, but it cannot record the debt on its balance-sheet at less than $50m on the ground that it expects to earn a higher return from the factory than its cost of borrowing.

A public-sector employer could replace its pension plan by buying a promise of equivalent value in the markets and handing over the proceeds to its employees. Since pension promises are legally (and sometimes constitutionally) protected in many states, the equivalent promise is a government bond. That is why the government-bond yield is the appropriate measure for discounting public liabilities, as Messrs Rauh and Novy-Marx assert.

The Bank of England recognises this issue. Its employees are guaranteed an inflation-linked pension so it meets that promise by buying inflation-linked bonds. The current cost is 55% of payroll, far more than most employers put aside. Other employers are paying less into their funds and taking a gamble that the equity market will deliver the rest. In effect, they are handing a guarantee of future stockmarket performance to their employees; something that would be very expensive to buy.

Oddly enough, the Bank of England has played its part in escalating the costs of other British pension schemes. The aim of QE is to lower bond yields. This raises the liabilities of pension funds (since it takes more money to deliver the same pension). The Pensions Corporation, an insurer, reckons the first round of QE increased the British pension hole by £74 billion. Regulations require that this hole be closed within ten years, costing companies £7.4 billion a year, money that could have gone into building factories and employing new workers. The National Association of Pension Funds has called for an emergency meeting with the regulator; the hope is that the contribution rules can be eased a bit.

These same issues apply to those on private and defined-contribution pensions. Struggling asset markets mean they build up a smaller pension pot; low bond yields mean the annuity income from that pot is lower. The result, according to a study by PricewaterhouseCoopers, a consultancy, is that Britons retiring today will end up with a pension income 30% lower than those retiring three years ago.

Workers approaching retirement should be saving more, not less, as a result of low rates. First, they will need to build up a larger pot to generate their desired income in retirement. Second, filling that pot will require more capital because investment returns will be lower.

It may be that, in aggregate, these side-effects of QE are outweighed by the relief brought to borrowers from lower rates. All the same it is an unfortunate piece of collateral damage, something the authorities have so far failed to address.

2011年10月13日 星期四

All's Fair in London

[COVER] Tony Kyriacou/Rex Features

A visitor admires Nigel Cooke's 'No Holidays' (2011) at Frieze Art Fair.

Artists, collectors, critics, curators and dealers have descended on London through Sunday to take part in the seventh annual Frieze Art Fair (www.friezeartfair.com), a key marketplace for contemporary art globally, with 173 galleries from 33 countries, showcasing more than 1,000 artists. Frieze's success has inspired an autumn art jamboree throughout the city, stimulating satellite fairs, auction sales and shows in other galleries.

Started in 2003 by Frieze Magazine editors Matthew Slotover and Amanda Sharp to sell contemporary art to a growing cohort of international collectors, fair participants are vetted by a committee of their peers to attract blue-chip galleries, as well as a high-spending, contemporary-art-loving audience. "We provide a focused contemporary art fair—that is our appeal," Ms. Sharp says.

Almost since its inception, Frieze stole contemporary thunder from those old ladies of the art market—Tefaf in Maastricht, strongest in Old Masters and antiques, and Art Basel, which spans both modern and contemporary. The appeal of Frieze, says art consultant Tanya Gertik, is "the energy and the buzz. It's very sociable."

Courtesy of Cristina Grajales Gallery, New York

Sebastian Errazuriz's 'Porcupine Cabinet' (2011) on show at PAD.

Since Frieze first opened, international art fairs, alongside their cousins—the biennials—have proliferated: Art Basel spawned Art Basel Miami Beach, which then generated Design Miami and, in turn, Design Miami Basel, set up to achieve the same market intensification for contemporary design that the mother fair had achieved for art. Older fairs, like Art Chicago and the Grosvenor House Art & Antiques Fair, have ceded some priority to newer fairs, such as Art Hong Kong and Masterpiece London.

But some collectors find the blockbuster model overwhelming, preferring a more intimate environment. "The minute a fair gets too large, the enjoyment goes out of it," Ms. Gertik says. Bernard Hartogs, a collector of art and design, adds: "I don't go to Frieze. It's too big." This is one reason why Frieze Week has also, quietly, become PAD week.

It was in 2007 that DesignArt first opened in Hanover Square, with just 19 galleries. Hoping to benefit from the seasonal delirium, French antique dealer Patrick Perrin and modern- and contemporary-art specialist Stéphane Custot, the founders of the successful Pavillon des Arts et du Design in Paris, launched a complementary fair to Frieze, offering one-off and limited-edition contemporary design mixed in with classic European modern design. A year later, the fair was offered Berkeley Square, a prime location, and the charmingly Continental mix of decorative arts, with modern and contemporary design, began to gel. By 2009, the duo felt confident enough to introduce modern art to the mix, experimenting in London with the formula pioneered in Paris. The renamed Pavilion of Art & Design London would invite galleries who specialized in fine art, decorative art or design that post-dated 1860—made after the advent of industrial mass manufacture, but without the contemporary art that is so well served in Regent's Park.

Running through Sunday, PAD (www.padlondon.net), is small and selective, with only 58 galleries. The genial mix of art, design and fine craft—Cristina Grajales's stand this week offers two striking cabinets by Christophe Côme and Sebastian Errazuriz, while Jousse Entreprise has a classic Jean Royère sofa—promotes a way of living with art as much as the buying of it.

Gérard Faggionato of Faggionato Fine Arts in London, says PAD "is comfortable, and people come back two or three times during the week."

Like Frieze, PAD doesn't issue an overall statement of sales, arguing that since sales often aren't concluded until months after the event, such statistics are misleading. Instead, it points you to the quality of the exhibits. Andrew Duncanson from Modernity has rare pieces by Alvar Aalto; Todd Merrill, an outstanding 3.5-meter sculpture of a dandelion (circa 1960) by Harry Bertoia; and Bernard Jacobson, some magnificent Robert Motherwell canvases. "The material is very good," Julian Treager, a collector of fine art, design and jewelry says. "Last year, I bought a vintage Cartier necklace from the 1970s. The year before, some pieces by Studio Job from Carpenters Workshop Gallery."

For the past five years, these two very different fairs have flourished in a finely balanced symbiosis. Next year, however, things are set to change when Frieze launches Frieze Masters, a second fair that will partly encroach on PAD's territory by exhibiting works of art from antiquity through 2000. Frieze Masters will occupy a marquee specially designed by New York art-space specialist Annabelle Selldorf, on the other side of Regent's Park from the contemporary fair, with its own program of events. Ms. Sharp explains that they are "bringing a contemporary approach to historical art—we will bring this art to new audiences." This initiative has been inspired by her recognition that "the past is present in every decision contemporary artists make. This is an opportunity to explore those connections more imaginatively." Meanwhile, in May, Frieze hopes to recreate its London achievement in New York, with a contemporary fair on Randall's Island Park, overlooking the East River.

PAD, however, remains unintimidated. Full of confidence in their concept, and with a line-up of loyal galleries, PAD too is launching a New York edition, Nov. 11-13. As Frieze and PAD continue in full swing, there is competitive tension in the air.

Mr. Perrin hopes his prime location, in Berkeley Square, will keep his modern dealers away from Frieze Masters. "If you bring the right collectors in front of the right booths, the dealers will trust you," he says, adding that "Frieze had no interest in modern painting. The people from contemporary art have almost no interest in the past."

Bloody Sunday


英國國防部將準備賠償在「血腥星期日」(Bloody Sunday)中,遭到政府軍隊射殺的受害者。


年,首相布萊爾決定重啟此案調查。20106月,由薩維爾(Lord Saville)勛爵領導,費時12年所完成的「血腥星期日」調查報告問世,才真正為這起悲劇釐清歷史責任。調查報告認為,英軍在沒有受到威脅的情況下開火,造成沒有武裝平民的死傷。薩維爾形容士兵們失去自我控制能力,且未遵守槍械使用規則。首相卡麥隆去年在將報告呈交給國會時,為軍方的行為道歉,直指當時的武力鎮壓既不正當,也無可辯護。




2011年10月10日 星期一

Paul McCartney, ministerial code, “佔領倫敦”The City

好幸福 保羅麥卡尼娶美國富豪千金 【2011/10/10 09:06】

前披頭四樂團(Beatles)成員保羅麥卡尼(Paul McCartney)昨天在英國倫敦迎娶美國富豪千金徐佛(Nancy Shevell),婚禮現場星光閃閃。(路透社)
〔本報訊〕根據外電報導,前披頭四樂團(Beatles)成員保羅麥卡尼(Paul McCartney)昨天在英國倫敦迎娶美國富豪千金徐佛(Nancy Shevell),婚禮現場星光閃閃,包括滾石樂團(Rolling Stones)羅尼伍德(Ronnie Wood)、同為前披頭四樂團團員的哥史達(Ringo Starr)均到場獻上祝福。

外電指出,徐佛來自紐約,身為富豪千金的她,為保羅麥卡尼第3任妻子。保羅麥卡尼第1任妻子為伊斯特曼(Linda Eastman),伊斯特曼在1998年死於乳癌;第2任名模妻子米爾茲(Heather Mills)則是在2008與他決裂交惡。


保羅麥卡尼爵士是一名英國搖滾音樂家、創作歌手以及作曲家,前披頭四(1960-1970年)及Wings(1971-1981年)樂團隊員。作為披頭四 的成員,保羅·麥卡尼與約翰·藍儂、喬治·哈里森和哥史達一起取得世界性的知名度,特別是他與藍儂形成了非常成功而且影響力深遠的創作組合,兩人攜手寫出 好些搖滾樂界最受歡迎的歌曲,例如《Hey Jude》、《Let It Be》等都經常被視作流行樂界的金曲,而《Helter Skelter》被指為歷來第一首重金屬音樂。

音樂以外,保羅·麥卡尼參與過電影製作,嘗試過繪畫,並極力支持一些國際慈善機構的計劃。他在生活中提倡維護動物權益、推廣素食主義、普及音樂教育,同時 更為熱烈地投身於對抗戰後地雷、捕殺海豹以及第三世界債務的社會運動之中。1997年3月11日,早已擁有大英帝國員佐級勳章(MBE)的他進一步獲英女 王冊封為爵士勳銜(Knight Bachelor)。

BBC News - PM demands Liam Fox MoD inquiry answers by Monday

www.bbc.co.uk › ... › BBC NewsUK Politics -
2 days ago – On Friday, Mr Fox ordered a MoD inquiry into whether their relationship had breached the ministerial code. Mr Cameron has now asked the ...

The City

英國一些抗議者正計劃于10月15日在倫敦市金融區建立“帳篷城”,發起“佔領倫敦”運動。 創建“佔領倫敦”Facebook組群的凱·瓦格拉(Kai Wargalla)說:“華爾街抗議者鼓舞了我們,但那只是個開始。我們需要人們站起來,發出自己的聲音。”“佔領倫敦”運動的目的是團結英國活動家, ...

卡梅倫敦促歐盟領導人采取“大型反坦克火箭”措施來解決歐元危機,并警告他們只剩下幾周時間可以避免經濟災難。 德國總理默克爾(Angela Merkel)與法國總統薩科齊(Nicolas Sarkozy)周日(9日)會晤后表示,將在月底宣布新的解決歐元區債務的一攬子綜合性措施。 ...

2011年10月9日 星期日

The Phantom Of The Opera, Celebrating 25 Years

Saturday 1 October - Sunday 2 October 2011

The Phantom of the Opera

OFFICIAL PRESS RELEASE: Celebrating 25 Years, Cameron Mackintosh Presents Andrew Lloyd Webber’s The Phantom Of The Opera At The Royal Albert Hall On Saturday 1st And Sunday 2nd October 2011


Cameron Mackintosh is delighted to present Andrew Lloyd Webber’s THE PHANTOM OF THE OPERA at the Royal Albert Hall on Saturday 1st October at 7.30pm and Sunday 2nd October at 1.30pm and 7.00pm. Tickets for “Phantom of the Opera at the Albert Hall” go on sale on Monday 4 July at 10.00am and are available on 0845 401 5045 or at www.phantom25th.com

This lavish, fully staged production of “Phantom of the Opera at the Albert Hall” will star Ramin Karimloo as ‘The Phantom’ and Sierra Boggess as ‘Christine’. They will be joined by Barry James as ‘Monsieur Firmin’, Gareth Snook as ‘Monsieur André’, Liz Robertson as ‘Madame Giry’ and Wynne Evans as ‘Piangi’ together with a cast and orchestra of over 200 and some special guest appearances.

“Phantom of the Opera at the Albert Hall” will be directed by Laurence Connor with Musical Staging and Choreography by Gillian Lynne. The Royal Albert Hall will be transformed with a spectacular and unique design by Matt Kinley inspired by Maria Björnson’s original design. Lighting is by Patrick Woodroffe and Andrew Bridge and Sound by Mick Potter. The original London production was directed by Hal Prince.

Ramin Karimloo’s theatre credits include, leading roles in “Love Never Dies” (2011 Olivier Award Nominee and Winner of the 2011 What’s On Stage Award, both for ‘Best Actor in a Musical’), “The Phantom of the Opera” (Theatre Goers’ Choice Award Nomination) “Les Misérables”, “Miss Saigon”, “The Pirates of Penzance” and “Sunset Boulevard”.

Ramin had the privilege of performing as ‘Enjolras’ in “Les Misérables – A Special Concert at Windsor Castle” to celebrate the centenary of the Entente Cordiale, in front of Her Majesty The Queen and also reprised the role for the 25th Anniversary celebration of “Les Misérables at The 02”. Recordings include: his own album “Within the Six Square Inch” and the première symphonic recording of “Love Never Dies”. Ramin has signed with a major label and is currently recording his
first solo album.

Sierra Boggess is currently starring opposite Tyne Daly in the Broadway revival of Terrence McNally’s “Master Class”. Prior to that, she starred in Andrew Lloyd Webber’s “Love Never Dies” in the West End. For her performance as ‘Christine Daae,’ Sierra received a 2011 Olivier Award nomination for Best Actress in a Musical. Sierra’s other NY theatre credits include starring as the title character in the Broadway production of Disney’s “The Little Mermaid” (Drama Desk and Drama League nominations and Broadway.com award for Favourite Breakthrough Performance) and in the City Centre Encores! production of “Music in the Air”. She starred as ‘Christine’ in “Phantom – The Las Vegas Spectacular” and has been seen in the national tours of “Les Misérables” and “West Side Story”. Recordings include the Symphonic Recording of “Love Never Dies” and the Original Cast Album for Disney’s “The Little Mermaid”.

Sir Cameron Mackintosh said “It is amazing to think that the extraordinary success of The Phantom
of the Opera is about to celebrate 25 years.

From the very first performance, audiences have fallen in love with the unique alchemy of Andrew Lloyd Webber’s gorgeous score and Maria Björnson’s fabulously beautiful design, so brilliantly staged by Hal Prince and Gillian Lynne.

The success of the show has become the stuff of theatrical legend so Andrew and I felt we needed to create a really special performance to celebrate the 25th anniversary.

One of the great strengths of The Phantom of the Opera is that being set in an opera house, its production is totally theatrical. So we felt that there could be no better 19th Century theatrical auditorium in London for this occasion than the Royal Albert Hall. With its Victorian red plush and celebrated magnificent organ it is the perfect place for The Phantom to haunt. Though this special staging will naturally be drawn from the brilliant original, it will be both a spectacular and unique
production with a cast and orchestra of over 200 headed by Ramin Karimloo and Sierra Boggess. Both artists have been an outstanding ‘Phantom’ and ‘Christine’ in recent productions and have also enjoyed huge success together as the stars of Love Never Dies.

I have no doubt that these three performances at the Royal Albert Hall will be a thrilling celebration of the Music of the Night.”

THE PHANTOM OF THE OPERA became the longest running show in Broadway history on 9 January 2006 when it celebrated its 7,486th performance, surpassing the previous record holder “Cats”. This coincided with the Broadway and the US national touring company celebrating an unprecedented 20,000 performances in the United States. In October 2010 the London production celebrated its 10,000th performance.

THE PHANTOM OF THE OPERA has won over 50 major theatre awards, including seven Tonys on Broadway and three Olivier Awards in the West End. It won the ‘Most Popular Musical Audience Award’, voted by the public, in the 2002 Laurence Olivier Awards. THE PHANTOM OF THE OPERA, which opened at Her Majesty’s Theatre on 9 October 1986 starred Michael Crawford as ‘The Phantom’ and Sarah Brightman as ‘Christine.’ It is produced by Cameron Mackintosh and The Really Useful Theatre Company Limited.

Worldwide, THE PHANTOM OF THE OPERA has grossed over £3.2 billion. The box office revenues are higher than any film or stage play in history, including “Titanic”, “ET” and “Star Wars”. It has been seen in 145 cities in 27 countries and played to over 100 million people. THE PHANTOM OF THE OPERA is currently showing in London, New York, Budapest, Las Vegas, and Kyoto.

Release issued by: Raw PR

2011年10月8日 星期六

有些圖書館必須關閉?JG Frazer's The Golden Bough.金枝

JG Frazer's The Golden Bough.金枝

2011/10/9 戴老師說 他以前到 bbc 中文網 看過
英國窮 有些圖書館必須關閉 討論者有一計 說要將該圖書館的書都借出來

我用"bbc 中文網 英國圖書館關閉" 查不到相關資訊

The Journal of a Tour to the Hebrides/ Poetry Made...

The Journal of a Tour to the Hebrides/ Poetry Made...

2011年10月7日 星期五

英國的科學--幾個重要的硏究機關/ 〈英國超市-市集基本介紹:倫敦篇〉

網站更新 & 好康訊息

● 校友網頁新增:〈英國超市-市集基本介紹:倫敦篇



這是一本好書 雖然各組織只講至1940年而已英國的科學--幾個重要的硏究機關:
皇家學院48頁/ 格林威基皇家天文台 45頁/ 英國的農業研究--樂桑斯特實驗戰30頁

馬丁(Thomas Martin), 準兹(Harold Spencer Jones),拉塞爾(John E. Russell)撰 李曉舫譯
臺一版 臺北市|c臺灣商務|d民65 1976 [6],126面|d18公分

"Sir Harold Spencer Jones, 1890-1960". Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society of Canada 55: 117. Bibl code:1961JRASC..55..117S. Página visitada em 2008-02-24.

2011年10月5日 星期三

Bloody Awful 英國航空公司BA

譬如說 哈佛大學企業管理評論文集 (領導學 台北:天下文化 2000 ) 提到英國航空公司BA 有人稱它是Bloody Awful (頁182)
翻譯的人照普通義亂翻成 "血腥恐怖"
這bloody在英國的歷史悠久 讀者可參看諸如The New Oxford American Dictionary 等處的說明

Chiefly British Slang. Used as an intensive: "Everyone wants to have a convict in his bloody family tree" (Robert Hughes).

3 ((主に英話))いまわしい;べらぼうな;ひどい;まったくの.
(1)直接表現をはばかってb-y, b-dyと伏せ字で書かれることもある. (2)単なる強調にも用いる
You bloody villain!
こんちくしょう, この野郎
What the bloody hell are you saying?

*** 只舉此例 頁191的Moment of Truth 類似 這多是有文化意義的詞

The Tudors

10/10重現英倫霸王宮廷祕辛 【都鐸王朝】不只是一部華麗的古裝宮廷歷史劇,


The Tudors - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Tudors is a Canadian produced historical fiction television series filmed in Ireland, created by Michael Hirst and produced for Showtime. The series, named ...

基督教在英國 (抽樣)

這報導多少說明基督教在英國勢力仍大 不過信奉者人少


  • 2011-10-05
  • 【台灣醒報/莊瑞萌】


今年8月英國倫敦發生罕見的青少年暴動,在最新一期《Keep the Faith》的基督教雜誌中,卡麥隆特別表示,「長久以來,我們沒有去探討個人行為與道德,我也相信教會領袖的職責之一,就是教導民眾具備分辨善惡的觀 念,包括我在內,則應該盡力營造一個更有責任感、相互連結與公平的社會。」

對於英國青少年聚眾滋事,英國「基督徒關注國家組織」(Christian Concern for the Nation)牧師阿姆巴也在該雜誌撰文中表示,「如果英國黑人教會能更加團結,我想這些暴動應該就不會發生。」

英國基督教雜誌《The Way》主筆皮爾森也提醒,過去英國政府受到歐盟政策影響太深,導致包括墮胎與青少年懷孕率問題居高不下,當政者應該時時提醒自己。

此外《Another Capital Idea》指出,過去十年英國倫敦基督徒,捐獻與聚會的人數出現大幅成長,其中,捐獻金額成長50%;聚會人數自2003年到2010年間,則從6萬人增加到7萬4千多人,增加近1萬4千人。

Dictionary Johnson/ A Dish of Tea with Dr Johnson

Dictionary Johnson/ A Dish of Tea with Dr Johnson

2011年10月3日 星期一

倫敦畫記 The Silent Traveller in London

倫敦畫記 The Silent Traveller in London

地名翻譯有問題 應該是幫了倒忙
漢文本的缺點是沒附一相關的倫敦地圖 我相信大半讀者都搞不清楚文中的地理

倫敦畫記 The Silent Traveller in London 1937
作者:蔣彝(啞行者)原文作者:Chiang Yee

                         ──宮布利希(E. H. Gombrich,藝術史大師,《藝術的故事》作者)

   上世紀的西方世界出版了許多關於中國的書籍,但由中國作家以英文來寫西方,即使在今天也不多見。蔣彝的倫敦遊記出版於1938年,不但是少數幾本廣為在 西方流傳的華人著作,這本書也扭轉了旅行書寫的傳統:透過一個中國傳統畫家的眼光,來看大家早已熟悉的倫敦。蔣彝沒有被異國的新鮮經驗所迷惑,也並未死守 僵化的成見,悠遊其中卻仍保有自我的傳統。

  他近距離觀察倫敦人的習性與他們的喜好,對下午茶及喋喋不休討論天氣的習慣著迷不已;餵鴿 子、散步、人名,種種倫敦日常生活的平凡瑣事,都激起他的好奇。蔣彝懷著熱情與驚訝,用幽默而細膩的文字,一步步踏進這個陌生的大都會。他體驗著這裡的四 季更迭,還有惡名昭彰的濃霧,生活的越久,對這座城市以及它的居民,情感也越來越深。

  書中並配上作者饒富趣味的水墨速寫。他獨有的畫 家 之眼,更處處流瀉在細膩的文字之中,眾多外在環境的微小細節,他都賦予極具視覺性的描述,使讀者猶如看見一幅幅畫一般。《倫敦畫記》同時也是一本關於中國 及轉變中的世界的書。他生動敏銳的記錄下當時倫敦的生活樣貌,揉雜了對失落故土的濃濃鄉愁,以及山雨欲來風滿樓的憂心忡忡。更重要的是,作者展現了在混亂 的世界局勢與中西文明衝擊之下,如何以清明的眼光與寬大的心胸,在其中找到自己的定位。


  蔣彝是 英 文旅遊文學的異數。20世紀前半葉,當旅行這回事仍充滿重重阻礙時,去到異國一向都是西方「強權」的專利,畢竟這是大航海時代以來的悠久傳統。而蔣彝,這 個原本充滿救國意識的官員,被迫中斷政治生涯並流落他鄉後,竟陰錯陽差地開啟遊記作家的生涯。他一個來自傳統、前現代文明的異鄉人,可說是唯一一個從東方 眼光看西方的特例,顛覆了當時旅遊探險的觀察對象。


陳義芝、雷驤、楊澤、羅智成 等詩人畫家 共同推薦




                                ──Times Literary Supplement



享譽西方逾半世紀的中國作家 作品首次引進台灣在西方,旅遊文學作家「啞行者」名聲響亮,在以英文寫作的華人散文作家中,堪稱與林語堂齊名,但其作品,卻在70年後,才「還原」為中文母語,與作者的同胞相見。

   啞行者,本名蔣彝(1903-1977),首部作品是1937年在倫敦出版的《湖區畫記》,一個月內第一版即售罄,接著再版8次,從此以遊記作家的身分 為人所知。此後他多方遊歷英美各大城鎮,專注於遊記寫作,「啞行者畫記」系列陸續推出倫敦、北英格蘭、牛津、愛丁堡、都柏林、巴黎、紐約、波士頓、舊金 山、日本等11本遊記,成為歐美知名的旅遊作家。其作品至今仍被視為旅遊文學的經典。每本遊記,除散文,並配有他自己畫的插圖、寫的詩歌,熔詩、書、畫、 文、史、印於一爐,妙趣橫生。

  啞行者於英文世界一鳴驚人,在中文世界反倒默默無聞,生前作品從未譯成中文出版,只有在他逝後,1977年香港三聯書店出版了他的中譯書《重返中國》(China Revisited)。

   蔣彝出生於江西九江的書香世家,他的父親蔣和庵擅長丹青,尤工花鳥人物,因此自幼即從父親習書畫,並接受完整的私塾教育。其後政局動盪,舉家遷移廬山山 腳下,在此處的生活經驗,奠定蔣彝一生對自然環境的傾慕與鄉愁。五四運動後,蔣彝因政治因素被迫遠離家國。1933年,他在英國倫敦大學經濟學院學習,後 並被東方學院聘為講師,教授中國文化。1955年,他接受哥倫比亞大學聘任,在東亞系教授中國文化課程,於是遷居紐約,一直到1977年去世。

  蔣彝以「啞行者」(Silent Traveller)為筆名,暗喻對官場政治的痛恨失望,同時也自表「我以沉默之姿在倫敦四處游蕩,在沉默之中觀察各種事件」的態度。





  • 叢書系列:書房
  • 規格:平裝 / 288頁 / 15*22.5cm / 普級 / 單色印刷 / 初版
  • 出版地:台灣


序 Foreword
前言 Introduction

Part I 倫敦景色 London Scene

倫敦的春天 Spring in London
倫敦的夏天 Summer in London
倫敦的秋天 Autumn in London
倫敦的冬天 Winter in London
倫敦的霧 London Fog
月下倫敦 London under the Moon
雪中倫敦 London in Snow
風雨中的倫敦 London in Wind and Rain

PART II 倫敦生活 London Life

關於兒童 About Childen
談書籍 On Books
關於雕塑 About Statues
人名研究 A Study of Names
在美術館 At Galleries
談戲劇與電影 On Plays and Films
關於下午茶 About Teatime
談食物 On Food
談飲酒 On Drink or Wine
談男人 On Men
談女人 On Women
老人 On Old Age
幾位人物 Some Personalities
結語 Conclusion

   1938年11月,《星期泰晤士報》(Sunday Times)於倫敦的伯爵廣場舉辦全國書展,吸引了數千人前往參觀,其中還包括瑪麗皇后和肯特公爵等知名人士。書展大受歡迎,主要有一個原因,包括成名作 家、新進作家在內,總共幾十位作家在那兒舉辦演講;其中也有新書《啞行者倫敦畫記》的作者蔣彝。蔣彝在擠得滿滿的演講廳內,向超過七百名聽眾就「一個中國 人眼中的英國」發表演講。面對聽得入神的聽眾,蔣彝表示﹕「這個國家的人相信,中國人做事的方法完全不對。可有沒有人想過,中國人對這國家的人也有同樣想 法﹖你們把名字擺在姓前面,我把我的姓蔣擺在名字彝前面。在中國,結婚之後開始談戀愛。在英國,結婚之後,戀愛似乎自然而然就終結了。」演講後,蔣彝以毛 筆為聽眾在新書上簽下他的中文名字,逗得大家非常開心。《星期泰晤士報》報導,「他的簽名大受歡迎。」

  二十世紀起始,東方逐漸引起人 們 興趣。藝展、書本、文章、戲劇演出、學院亞洲文化課程,在在擴大並刺激了英美人士的視野。多位漢學家也貢獻良多,前外交官劍橋的翟理思(H.A. Giles),編了著名《中英字典》,還針對中國歷史、文學、宗教寫了許多學術論著。莊士頓(Reginald Johnston)爵士不僅是中國末代皇帝的老師,也是中國佛學、文學、儒家思想方面的學者;阿瑟?魏里(Arthur Waley)譯介了大量中國古典巨著,非凡成就極得文學界重視。另外還有一些相關文化事件:1935年11月皇家學院史無前例的「國際中國藝展」,提供英 國觀眾一次難能可貴的美學饗宴;1930年代中期熊式一成功翻譯中國劇作《王寶釧》,並搬上舞台,使觀眾充份領略中國古典戲劇獨特之美;林語堂的《吾國吾 民》(1935)?賽珍珠的《大地》(1931)?依恩?傑克生(Innes Jackson)的《昨日中國》(China Only Yesterday)(1938)?彼得?佛萊明(Peter Fleming)的《獨行記:中國之旅》(One’s Company: A Journey to China)(1934)以及其他書,都讓西方見到了現代中國的社會面及文化面。這所有的事件和出版品加在一起,多少去除了難以數計的刻板印象和誤會,認 為中國神秘又野蠻,也對這有著傑出文明與文化的國家,多了些了解。

  這種氛圍自然有利蔣彝成為成功而受歡迎的作家。在寫出《啞行者倫敦 畫 記》之前,蔣彝已因前面幾本力作而享有文名:介紹中國藝術的《中國眼》(1935)、記述他至英國西北部湖區旅遊經歷的《啞行者湖區畫記》(1937), 以及《中國書法》(1938)。這些書全都以英文寫成,全都廣受歡迎。好比,他有關湖區的那本書,初版之後,立刻在短期內印了好幾刷。《中國眼》和《中國 書法》也再版了好幾次,至今,許多國家仍視後者為該領域的經典著作。


   蔣彝1903年生於江西九江一個富裕家庭。其父為著名人像畫家,對於花、鳥繪畫特別情有獨衷。蔣彝自幼接受傳統教育,研習中國古籍,做古詩,練習書法、 國畫。在他成長過程中,1911年的國民革命和1919年的五四運動,都為中國人的國家意識和文化生活帶來極大震憾。受到當時先進思想衝擊,認為唯有進步 的科學才能造就新中國,蔣彝選擇就讀南京的國立東南大學化學系,並於畢業後在高中教了大約一年化學。不過,中國政治上的動蕩和社會經濟的不穩定,很快就促 使他決定,投身政治,以便參與社會革新與革命。他加入北伐軍,掃除軍閥,統一了國家,隨後在三個不同地方擔任縣長,包括他家鄉九江。後來,為了地方上一家 外國石油公司,蔣彝和一名極有權力的軍閥發生爭端。他辭去政府公職,於1933年離開中國,前往英國,並打算一、兩年內束裝返國。沒想到,他在國外一直滯 留了下去,直至1975年,才有機會重回中國,當時,距離他離開國門已經四十二年。

  1933年,蔣彝剛到英國,便進入倫敦大學成為學 生。1935年起,他於東方研究院擔任中文系助理講師,當時莊士頓爵士是該系系主任。後來,由於了解到中國醫藥在歷史上的重要地位,衛爾康歷史醫學博物館 (The Wellcome Historical Medical Museum)於1938年聘請蔣彝,為其設立中國部門,安排展出。兩年後,一場空襲中,他位於漢普思德林區(Hampstead Heath)附近公園山路(Parkhill Road)的住處遭到炸毀,蔣彝才搬到牛津,直到1955年移居美國。

  在英國二十年期 間,蔣彝非常幸運,認識了許多藝術家、學者、詩人、劇作家,其中有中國人,有英國人。由於活躍的文化氛圍,倫敦是極少數能夠吸引中國流亡海外人士和知識份 子的歐洲城市。他們經常聚會,討論各種時新議題,互相支援。且舉幾位蔣彝在倫敦遇到的人士作例子:藝術家徐悲鴻、劉海粟,著名京劇演員梅蘭芳,劇作家熊式 一。同時,蔣彝也交了許多英國朋友,像是詹姆士.史都華.洛克哈特(James Stewart Lockhart)爵士、威廉.米爾納(William Milner)爵士、赫伯特.里德(Herbert Read)和莊士頓爵士。能夠進入這麼優秀的知識份子圈,對他自然大有助益,使他更明白文化交流帶給雙方的好處,也深層體會東西方文化的共通處。

   到達英國不久,蔣彝就給自己取了「啞行者」這名字。傳統上,中文「啞」這個字隱喻了謙虛和智慧,在這兒,則強調出蔣彝在西方遭遇的種種困境,尤其是語言 方面。這名字標示了蔣彝的新身份,也一輩子跟著他,經常出現在他的信件、明信片、簽名上。這名字還是他十二本旅行書的標題,書中記述了他在不同城市、國家 的旅行經驗,以及他對東西方相似之處的探索。

  經由他輕鬆幽默的筆調,至今世界各地已有幾百萬人認識了啞行者。整體而言,較之其他旅行 書,他的書有兩個特點:首先,書中包含了許多蔣彝的圖畫、素描、詩作,多彩多姿的封面上還有他手寫的中英文標題;其次,蔣彝非常細膩地觀察了西方的文化活 動,並與自己的母國互做比較。

  《啞行者倫敦畫記》是繼《啞行者湖區畫記》之後出版的。湖區國家公園一直以令人摒息的自然美景,及與十 九 世紀英國浪漫主義的關聯聞名。蔣彝1936年夏天至該區旅遊後,即寫了一本書。這書原本以旅遊日記的方式寫成。蔣彝陸續將手稿寄給幾家不同出版社,得到的 卻是一封接一封的退稿信。出乎意料地,過了幾個月,一家出版社決定給蔣彝的手稿一次機會,不過,他們要求修改「啞行者在湖區」這標題,因為擔心可能讓人聯 想到刻板而負面的中國人形象,好比,邪惡的傅滿洲醫師。幾經折衝,出版商妥協了,同意留下標題中「啞行者」這名詞,但需加上副標「一名中國藝術家在湖 區」。出版商對這書的銷售前景毫無把握,只同意給蔣彝六本書,還不打算付他任何版稅。藝評家赫伯特.里德寫了前言,稱讚蔣彝勇氣十足:「進入我們國家的殿 堂,以自己的方式致敬。」里德讚美該書:成功證明「華茲華斯的詩作相當貼近某些東方情感和思想」(註1)。讓出版商跌破眼鏡的是,蔣彝的書大為暢銷,頭版 一個月就賣光了。接下來再版的書,作者自然拿到了版稅,而「啞行者」這意念,也成了他隨後旅行書的標誌。

  刁鳴健(M. T. Z. Tyau)寫的《留英管窺記》(1920)一書也需在此一提。蔣彝前往英國前,他的朋友曾石虞送了他這本書,當作禮物。毫無疑問,蔣彝後來決定寫旅行書, 以至他的寫作方式,多少都受了這書影響。不過,只要比較兩本書,立刻就會發現,它們在主題和風格上,完全不一樣。姚是1909至1916年間於倫敦學習法 律的中國學生,回到中國後,才記錄下他印象中的倫敦、他懷念的倫敦。那書總共三十章,範圍廣泛,明顯偏重社會政治面,其中包括下面幾章:〈街名〉、〈下午 茶〉、〈自由之邦〉、〈家庭制度〉和〈法庭〉。相對而言,蔣彝的《啞行者倫敦畫記》就詩意些,較重印象。這書顯示,蔣彝對自己旅行書寫的獨特風格相當自 信,在主題安排及敘述方式上,也複雜得多。這書包含了兩部份:〈倫敦景色〉和〈倫敦生活〉。第一部份呈現了倫敦四季中和不同氣候下的市容,突顯了中國人對 自然環境的敏銳感受;第二部份則遵循英文隨筆作家寫作傳統,對兒童、書本、美術館、食物、老年等各色題目進行深思。不過,整本書合起來,卻是中國觀察家以 藝術化而詩意方式重建了的倫敦。他的描述印象化而片片斷斷,獨特卻精巧,一覽無遺畫出了這偉大城市的全景。

  1930和40年代,《啞 行 者倫敦畫記》風靡了西方讀者,之前,他們只讀過歐洲人所寫關於中國人和中國文化的書。忽然,他們發現了一個全新而陌生的聲音在談論他們的文化──他們那經 常自視為較優越較進步的文化。某種層面上,傳統上身為觀察者的西方旅行作家和人種學者,成了被觀察的對象。角色顛倒了過來。蔣彝一點都不隱瞞他的族裔身 份,還經常提到自己的文化背景,提到中國人。這種文學技巧不僅大膽,而且極具創意。倫敦這本書,如同蔣彝其他的書,無論語言結構、文章內容或用字遣詞,都 非常中國化,英文讀者讀來,必覺充滿異國風味。不過,這些讀者一定也會為他的幽默、智慧、簡潔,甚至極具技巧的自貶所傾倒,另外就是穿插文中迷人的圖畫和 書法了。他們很快發現,啞行者呱噪又溫和,他筆下的中國人世故而具人性。

  本書讀者一定不會忽略蔣彝新鮮而機敏的觀察。我得強調,這些 觀 察經常既顛覆又啟發,挑戰傳統思想,並點醒我們,必須重新評估自己和周遭世界。許多人喜歡抱怨倫敦的霧、雨和風,可是蔣彝卻在惡劣的氣候裡發現了美,發現 了樂趣。他喜歡「雨中散步,因為可以真正欣賞自然之美。」他告訴讀者如何發現並欣賞現代城市之美。除了花、樹、湖、公園裡的鴨,皮卡得利圓環 (Piccadilly Circus)和攝政街(Regent Street)上的人群這種都市裡常見的景象,也可以讓蔣彝驚嘆、開心不已。他說,他喜歡觀看雨中的人群。「我看不到他們的臉孔或身體,只見得到移動的雨 傘。如果那些傘是深藍色的,我很可能將它們誤認為海潮,正由我立足的地方不斷往外沖刷。」英文名字那一章也充滿創意。蔣彝說,他花了三天時間,將倫敦電話 簿上的名字由第一個流覽到最後一個,並驚訝地發現,英文名字和中文名字一樣怪。他留意到,英文名字可能自相矛盾,用字可能很奇怪,姓氏尤其如此。為了強調 自己的意思,他以英文姓氏寫成一篇短文,只不過,「文法是中式的」,因為動詞時態不對,也沒有冠詞。

  膽小鬼(Coward Man)和黑孩子(Dark Child)──不是好孩子(Goodchild)──上漁夫(Call Fisherman)那買魚(Buy Fish)。漁夫拿鯡魚(Fisherman Handover Herring)給孩子(Child),膽小鬼煎鯡魚(Fry Herring)由灰(Gray)煎成棕(Brown)。聰明狐狸(Wise Fox)由孩子那接過鯡魚(Take Herring),和膽小鬼同樂(Full Joy)。膽小鬼拿刀子(Knife)走來(Walk Down),孩子大叫(Child Call Loud),有人(Man Want)要殺人(Man-Slaughter Child)。還有呢(Whatmore)?

  表面看來, 《啞行者倫敦畫記》說的是作者對一個城市的印象,實際卻是對英國文化和中國文化的比較。在討論倫敦景色時,蔣彝舉出許多鮮活實例,比較並說明東西方的相似 之處。他寫道,他深知西方的種族歧視,也深感厭惡,十九世紀末二十世紀初一些英文作家,對東方所知有限,卻錯誤百出地談論中國。蔣彝決心,以自己的筆,糾 正遭扭曲的形像和謬誤的事實。與其義正詞嚴地指責那些謬誤,蔣彝選擇「找出世上所有人類的共同點」(註2) 。他自相異之處尋找共同點。在這本研究倫敦的書裡,當討論到工作時間、兒童教育,甚至對愛情的期盼時,蔣彝指出,儘管語言、膚色、宗教、習慣不同,世界各 地的人還是有許多共通之處,而這些共通之處正是未來互信、和諧共處的基礎。

  蔣彝也不吝於介紹一些基本的儒家思想,即祖國的傳統哲學思 想 給讀者。為了強調智慧、真誠、同情,他經常提到儒家思想和道德規範,好比,孝道,子女尊敬並照顧父母及長輩的責任。他提到儒家思想時,一點都不教條。相對 地,他讓讀者感受到一點中國大眾哲學的趣味,並以一些精心挑選的實例、格言,喚起他們的好奇。

  值得一提的是,蔣彝以不懂政治為由,幾 乎 在所有書裡,刻意避開這方面的話題。這種避談政治的態度並非無知,而是體現了他一貫的堅定信念,認為在促進世界和平上,文化,必將扮演舉足輕重的角色。那 同時也是他的策略,在1930年代動蕩不安的時代裡,為自己尋得安身立命之道。

  蔣彝一直讓人覺得,他是個快活的人。他臉上總帶著笑, 文 字總讓人捧腹。然而,在他內心深處,卻一直存在一股深深的悲傷、恐懼、焦慮和鄉愁。蔣彝從不讓人知道內心感受,直到晚年,他才承認,他並不似人們一直以為 的那般快樂無憂(註3)。蔣彝書寫倫敦這書時,生活中發生了兩件不幸。1938年春天,二十年來教導他、支持他的兄長去世了,使他極度悲傷。接著,幾個月 之後的七月,他的家鄉陷入日本侵略者之手。蔣彝的妻子和四名兒女都留在中國,他們的安危前途成了他永遠的牽掛。他將悲傷痛苦埋在心裡,只偶而觸景傷情,看 到假日慶祝場面、兒童歡笑、楊柳、公園青草,這些深埋的情緒才會迸發出來,變得懷舊而善感。他懷念他的家人,他的故鄉。


   《啞行者倫敦畫記》初版至今已超過六十年。包括二次大戰、中華人民共和國建國、冷戰、尼克森訪問中國、柏林圍牆倒塌等重大書件,都為世界和東西方關係帶 來了巨幅改變。然而,在此高科技和全球化的時代,蔣彝的書仍然得以啟發今日的讀者。倫敦的景物早已全非,人生的美和本質卻仍一樣,仍有待我們去發掘和珍 藏。文化價值和習俗變了,人性基本上最終渴求的仍是愛、諒解與和平。因此,重新出版《啞行者倫敦畫記》,不僅只是重新出版了一本好書,還象徵對蔣彝理念和 文化貢獻的認同和欣賞。我確信,讀完這書後,蔣彝的結語仍會不斷縈繞我們心頭:「我在倫敦看得愈多,對四周景物愈覺親切;對倫敦生活了解愈深,愈堅信人 道、慈愛和美。為什麼人們要因種族和國籍而產生間隙呢?」


  1. 赫伯.瑞德,〈前言〉;蔣彝著,《啞行者湖區畫記》(倫敦:鄉村生活有限公司,1937),xi-xii頁。
  2. 蔣彝,《重返中國》(紐約:諾頓,1977),49頁。
  3. 蔣彝,《重返中國》(紐約:諾頓,1977),48-49頁。

  鄭達,波士頓撒佛克大學(Suffolk University)英語系副教授,正在撰寫由文化層面切入的蔣彝傳,傳記名稱暫定《啞行者:來自東方的藝術家》。



前言 Introduction
只 要恰好讀過我寫的那本關於英國「湖區」的書,就一定沒法想像,我會以倫敦為寫作題材。畢竟,我 在書裡說過,倫敦的霧讓人住起來不怎麼舒服。我說的是真話。不過,具有理性思考能力的人,總能由每件事裡找到一些美感。在倫敦的這段時間,有時我覺得這兒 乏味,有時又覺得有趣。自五年前抵此,我見過倫敦許多美好的一面,也對所見之事做了相當多的反思。身為東方人(事實上,有個倫敦人批評我是「過時的」中國 人),我註定了要由不同角度觀察倫敦。可我的觀點真的會與眾不同嗎?這,我不敢確定。

我的讀者肯定得自己判斷。有人覺得,國籍不同,人 也 會變得極端不同。我不以為然。表面上,人或有差異,但他們吃飯、喝水、睡覺、穿衣、躲風、避雨,卻毫無二致。本質上,他們對未來的期盼更大同小異。個別思 想永遠都只是個別思想,共同品味卻不分國界,將不同的人連繫在一起。你明白,在你們的屠夫眼裡,一隻活蹦亂跳的小羔羊是要宰來吃的,不是拿來欣賞的!在中 國屠夫的眼裡,也一樣!

我一向喜歡記下心中感觸。這本關於倫敦的書在我心中醞釀已久,但我始終羞於這麼快便將其付梓。我同意我朋友的說 法,第一印象總是最新鮮有趣。但我們稍後往往發現,第一印象經常是錯的。還沒來倫敦前,我常聽朋友述說種種到那兒旅遊的見聞,也在報上、書上讀過許多記 載。但那些資料都太籠統,沒法讓我有個清晰概念。我想,凡是讀過、聽過有關中國見聞的人,肯定也有同樣感慨。有許多人,到中國旅遊幾個月回來,便可以寫出 有關中國的書,內容涵蓋文學、哲學、家庭生活、社會情形、經濟狀況。還有些人,根本沒去過中國,也可以寫書。我只能佩服他們的大無畏精神,以及輕易歸納重 大事情的本領。

我想,很多人跟我一樣,經常遭人誤解,動不動就落入某種刻板印象,可又有口難言。有個英國朋友認為,所有中國年輕人都是 共 產黨員,所以,我一定也是共產黨員。另一個朋友批評我老頑固,是屬於過去年代裡的人。而我跟他們也不過是泛泛之交。我想,一定很多人奇怪,我頭上怎麼沒有 辮子?一定也有很多人以為,我就是活生生的吳先生、陳查理!

這 些都是關於倫敦的經典之作。我的書,卻是另一類。在觀察重大事件上,我一向沒有太多自信,因此,我總是隨興瀏覽一些小地方。這些無所不在的小細節,總能吸 引我去凝望、注視、思考,並帶給我極大樂趣。正因細小,它們很容易就讓人忽略了。這本微不足道的書或許該稱為平日隨意觀察所得,也許能在睡前或茶餘飯後, 帶給一些讀者樂趣。我馬上就要進入書中,較有秩序地談談我的印象了,不過,我最好還是在這兒,先給讀者們一些免費樣品,就像糖果糕餅店常常做的那樣。下面 這些都是我記得的第一印象。我是搭乘法國船由上海抵達法國的,到倫敦前,我先在巴黎待了一夜。出了多佛(Dover)港市後,我在鐵路沿線得到的第一印象 就是一頂接一頂的高禮帽。離城愈近,禮帽愈多。那時我想,我大概進了製造禮帽的工廠了。接著我尾隨一名來維多利亞車站接我的同胞前往中餐館。

我 們才進地鐵站電梯,就見到一名上了年紀、工人模樣的人,正在申斥一名挺俊秀的年輕人,因為那人跑進電梯時走錯了方向。雖然前者臉上、手上都很骯髒,像是 剛剛由煤礦坑裡爬出來,但是較之穿著時髦西裝的另一個人,他卻更懂得遵守公共秩序。我對那事印象深刻,也大惑不解,但我想,倫敦人根本不會注意到這類事。 幾天後,我在塔得漢法院街(Tottenham Court Road)上的多明尼恩戲院前等巴士。巴士才停下,一群人便擠過去,準備上車。

這 時我見到一名年輕人,攔住一位中年男人,他打算在乘客下車前擠上去。雖然那人擠呀擠的,年輕人卻緊緊拉住他,直到所有乘客下車為止。那一幕嚇了我一大跳, 最後,還忘了上車。我得說,中國大城市裡絕對見不到那工人和年輕人,對他們,我只有無限敬意。我相信,我的同胞或許也和他們一樣,會心生不滿,但絕不會如 此這般地路見不平。有了這些人,車掌和警察必可輕鬆許多!

我不知道,讀者是否會喜歡這類論調。我絕非為學富五車的人而寫!我記得,有回 和 一位女士聊天,她告訴我,她絕不會為了自娛娛人,寫一本敘述「零碎事件」的書,因為,沒有學者會做那樣的事!許多中國人會完全贊同她。原來全世界的學者都 一樣,對這個發現,我頗感興味。你或許知道,我們尊崇儒家思想。儒家的美德包括正直、孝順、真誠等,任何題目只要不包含這些德行,就不在學者討論之列。一 本書,如果不涉及這些內涵,也進不了書房或較嚴肅的房間,以免冒犯那些「經書」。

我現在正在寫的這類書,在中國,稱為「枕下書」,或 「茶 餘飯後的談資」。簡單講,就是你們的床邊閒書。我寫不出喬納森‧史維佛(Jonathan Swift)的《向讀者致意》(Compliment to the Readers)。在書中,他將讀者分做膚淺、無知、飽學三類,並說,他有支幸運之筆,寫出來的東西三類讀者都能欣賞。我只希望,我的讀者不會抱怨,我帶 著他們看了那麼多倫敦市內一般人根本不會注意到的小地方。

我想,只要對中國食物略有所知,應該就聽過「Chop Suey」這詞兒。來到倫敦之後,我經常邀請朋友上中餐館吃飯。看著菜單,他們總是點「Chop Suey」這道菜。一吃入口,他們都會問我,這菜裡有些什麼?我的回答很簡單:「什麼都有。」所有中國廚子和服務員都知道,英國客人喜歡這道菜。這道菜中 文叫「雜碎」,廣東發音聽起來則像「Chop Suey」。「雜」是「混合」的意思,「碎」是「零零星星」,合起來就是「混合了所有東西」。那道菜裡有些不錯的肉和蔬菜,混合起來,味道卻滿怪的。有趣 的是,如今在西方社會,那已成了一道著名的中國菜!言談至此,也許我該稱這書為「倫敦雜碎」,書裡沒什麼大不了的東西,但也許有些人會覺得,挺可口的。

我 很幸運,在倫敦過了極有意義的五年,接二連三遇上重大事件:英王銀婚慶、英王喬治五世駕崩、外相霍爾危機、王儲退位、女王登基加冕、巴士司機大罷工、外相 伊登危機等等,都是一生只能遇上一次的大事。一名東方人如我,卻幸運地在短短的時間內全碰上了!我曾遠遠見過三位國王,光憑這點,我如果還活在舊時代的中 國,就會被認為是最可敬的人了。現代中國對這事就沒有太大興趣。

我不打算在書中討論政治,因為我壓根兒就不懂。這五年來,我總覺得,每 個倫敦人都能談論政治,也都能頭頭是道地分析政治,顯得我分外愚蠢。每回我表示自己 不懂政治,人們都要大吃一驚。一天傍晚,我到住家附近的郵筒寄信,一名我認識了四年的老郵差和我攀談起來。當時適逢希特勒入侵奧地利不久,他想知道我的看 法。我說自己對此一無所知,他臉上現出了非常困惑的表情。接著我問他:「你對發生在阿比尼西亞、西班牙、中國的事件有什麼看法?」他很從容地回答說,自己 有滿腹的意見,但這三個國家的問題完全不一樣。

許多人都抱持這種態度,還會在聽到我說它們毫無二致時,激烈地和我爭論。他們說,每個人 都 希望和平,但幾乎每個人若非在打仗,就是正在準備打仗。每天,「和平」這兩個字都會大量出現在報上,但是,「戰爭」出現的次數也不遑多讓。阿比尼西亞人需 要教化。奧地利人活在修斯尼格(Schuschnigg)(註一)的專制暴政下。無法無天的中國人需要法令約束。對於這些論調,我只能目瞪口呆!三年前, 一位年輕女性朋友來我這兒喝茶,我們天南地北地無所不聊。她全然贊同意大利「教化」阿比尼西亞人之舉,因為她認為後者是野蠻人。

我微微 笑 著,不發一語,然後問她:「依妳看來,中國人呢?」她表示,中國人是文明人,她痛恨那跟我們作對的親愛鄰居。我聽了很高興,但絕不同意她的說法,認為中國 人不是野蠻人。若我們真是文明人,為什麼老一輩,甚至一些當代的人,仍然視荷蘭人、法國人、英國人,乃至所有歐洲人為「洋鬼子」?我想,「野蠻人」一詞也 不見得就不好,關鍵在於怎麼定義。事實上,幾千年前印度人就稱我們為野蠻人了。唐朝玄奘赴印度取經,多年下來,那爛陀的僧侶早視他為自己人,他們想說服 他,不要回中國:
「印度,」他們說,「是菩薩出生地。雖然祂早已遠離凡塵,祂的聖蹟還在這兒。一座座地造訪、參拜這些聖蹟,歌頌祂的德性,生活 才 能喜樂。為什麼來這兒了,突然又要離開呢?況且,中國還是塊野蠻之地。他們嘲諷和尚,蔑視宗教,所以菩薩不想生在那兒。住在那土地上的人,視野有限,罪孽 深重。所以(印度的)聖人、智者不想到那兒去……」(註二)

由玄奘的傳記看來,他的回答充滿國家尊嚴,大力讚揚儒家道統、人道主義、人 文 思想。可我還是看不出來,我們怎麼就不該被稱作「野蠻人」了。我敢肯定,五千年前,埃及人一定稱我們為「野蠻人」!詹姆士‧洛克哈特爵士曾在香港及崴海衛 的政府工作近四十年,對於中國有非常深入的研究。從前,他還未病犯沉痾之時,我每週六早上都會去拜訪他。他是個非常幽默的人。有時候,他要我為他解釋一小 段中文,那時,他總會說自己是無知的 「洋鬼子」。

但他非常愛國(這是我能找到最適切的字眼了),他告訴我,他幾乎將所有中文藏書中的 「夷」字都刪掉了。他收藏了整套《古文選珍》(Gems of Chinese Literature),該書係翟理思教授所譯,他並找了上海一家中文出版社發行中文版。不幸的是,在一段長篇中,「夷」字連續出現多次,他於是將那些字 全改成了我的「彝」,因這兩個字發音相同。有一天,我拿著這書去找他,並說,我變成「野蠻人」了。他大笑出聲,還解釋說,一定是我的出版商同胞搞錯了。 噢,那段快樂時光將一直留存在我的記憶裡,直到我們在另一個世界再度相逢!

這書還附了我的插圖,較之其他有關倫敦的書,或許可以因此產 生不同風味。在這兒待了將近一年後,我開始私下以毛筆畫出四周景物。一位很懂中國畫的英國朋友 警告我:再努力,也不可能以毛筆畫出英國景色。他認為,我不僅不可能達成目標,連原有的風格都可能給破壞了。我很感激他的關懷,卻不打算就此放棄。三年 來,我失敗了無數次,然而,我那本英國湖區書上的繪畫,卻受到讀者的青睞。我尤其感激那些坦率批評我畫作的人,還告訴我他們喜歡和不喜歡的作品。我希望他 們告訴我,他們對這書裡畫作的感想。

如今,大多數人對中國畫的模樣和主題多少都有了概念,不幸的是,他們往往還帶著些成見。如果看到畫 中 有一兩隻鳥、一些樹、幾塊疊在一塊兒的石頭,他們就會認定,那是不錯的中國畫。可如果他們發現畫裡有西式建築、現代人物,他們就會斷然說道:「那不是中國 畫。」無論畫藝如何,他們都不再有興趣。我們的畫和你們的畫固然有差異,但差異不在主題,而在使用的媒介。我們由四周景物吸取靈感,繪畫花、鳥、山水。也 許我們不會直接臨摹大自然,但我們畫的卻是記憶中的大自然。本書中的作品,畫的都是過去幾年我居住過的地方,希望讀者們不會存有偏見,認為它們不夠「中國 化」而不喜歡它們。我也希望讀者們不會存有另一種偏見,認為這類畫中國味太濃,因此不合他們的品味。我希望讀者能夠客觀地批評我的作品。

在 這兒還有一點我得提一下。大多數歐洲人或許不了解今日中國人的心理狀態。我說的不僅是我自己,而是我所有的同胞。只要是人類,大概都會有某種程度的「自卑 感」。但我們來自遙遠的地方,對這個歡樂開朗的民族,總會拿祖國來做些比較。我們知道自己有許多弱點,但我們相信,只要努力,只要有充裕時間,我們必可糾 正。畢竟,對任何國家來說,急進式的改革只會雪上加霜,既非一人之力,也非短時間能夠解決。我們的歷史和我國的面積,都只讓事情更加複雜。我們之中有些人 發現,融入倫敦生活非常困難,於是便冥頑不靈地置身局外。有些人不願融入某些圈子,因為總有人在看了有關中國的通俗電影、書籍後,提出許多不好回答的問 題。這些全都源於「自卑感」。孔子說:「不患人之不己知,患不知人也。」正因如此,我一直設法嘗試了解倫敦。

我在這兒遇到的每個朋友對 我 都很好。每回見面,他們都會問我,是否有來自家鄉的好消息?但我們得到的消息很少是正面的。真的,對我們而言,沒有消息就是好消息!除了內部問題,我們還 有個自做多情的鄰居,不顧我們的意願,堅持跟我們做朋友。過去五年,報上所有消息都關係到這個爭端。世人一定覺得有趣,一名年輕姑娘想嫁個老頭子,可在兩 情相悅之前,卻不斷尋事啟釁,以為如此一來便可如願。世界歷史上大概還沒發生過這樣的事情吧!對此,我沒意見,也不想發表意見,畢竟,我是「沉默旅者」。 況且,我心裡還有許多其他事需要思考。我以沉默之姿在倫敦四處游蕩,在沉默中觀察各種事件。

我在《泰唔士報》上讀過一篇名為「沉默地 鐵」 的文章。文章表示,經常推出新方案以取悅顧客的倫敦交通局近日宣布,準備花一大筆錢,讓部份地鐵車廂安靜無聲。「但是這項改變,」文章繼續道,「讓嘈雜車 廂上的沉默旅客,變成沉默車廂中的嘈雜旅客,一旦完成,不過是倫敦地鐵的另一項革新,充其量也只能吸引過去二十年來偶至首都一遊的旅客。」我節錄這段話只 有一個目的:儘管很多人不信,在倫敦,做個沉默的人,還是可能的。我得說,沉默有一點極好,較之其他喋喋不休以填滿自己時間的人,你可以逍遙自在一些。 「時間」,是生活裡挺重要的一點,特別是對住在倫敦的人而言。 布魯克小姐 (C. M. N. Brooker)收藏的日晷上有段題字,在這兒,容我引用:

註一:修斯尼格(Kurt von Schuschnigg,1897-1977)。奧地利政治家,1934年原本的總理恩格爾伯特‧陶爾斐斯(Engelbert Dollfuss)被刺身亡,因而繼任。
註二:勒內‧格魯塞(Rene Grousset)著,《沿著佛陀的足跡》(In the Footsteps of the Buddha),頁199。

人名研究 A Study of Names
於 我,英國名字雖然有趣,卻很難理解。剛開始,聽到不同的人有著相同的名字,總嚇 我一跳。走在繁忙的倫敦街頭,經常聽到路人呼喚約翰、查理。公園裡,每隔一段時間,似乎就會有男孩回應湯姆或喬治的叫聲。我很快發現,派對裡很多女士名叫 珍、瑪琪琳、或佛蘿拉。我很好奇,如果剛好同時來了三個約翰和四個瑪琪琳,他們怎麼區分彼此?有一回,大家聊得正開心,我聽到一位男士向我的朋友說:「比 爾,你覺得這樣好嗎?」「我覺得很好,比爾。」對方回答。我忍不住問我的朋友,他們為何那麼稱呼彼此?他答道:「他名叫比爾,我也是。」於是我說:「你不 覺得你在叫自己嗎?」他回答,「不會,我從沒這麼想過。」我還是一頭霧水!

一位中國女孩來這兒的教會寄宿學校就讀。我想修女們大概不太 會 念她的中文名字,於是幫她取了個英文名字「瑪格莉特」。她告訴我,已經有三個學生叫瑪格莉特了,她不知道,一旦有人喊這名字,她該怎麼反應?剛開始她還很 為難,後來,終於發現了修女們對於同樣名字不同人的叫法。但聽她的描述,那差異似乎並不明顯。不過,她說,修女們叫這名字時,她總會抬頭,看著她們的眼 睛。她很聰明!我常聽英國朋友說,他們憑直覺就可以分辨。他們覺得,我的問題是庸人自擾,因此,我依然是一頭霧水。

除 了流行,還有其他因素需要考慮。許多名字,像奧斯卡(Oscar)和雅比斯(Jabez),都因讓人聯想到不愉快而退場。也有相當多名字因為成了音樂劇嘲 笑的對象,也消失了。至於戰爭,則讓「庫司伯特」(Cuthbert)和 「可列倫斯」(Clarence)成為不好的字眼。沒人知道,什麼樣的突發事故會讓某個名字變得不受歡迎。

讀過這兩段文字,我很驚訝也充 滿好奇地發現,有些名字可能沒人喜歡,有些卻可能大家搶著要,突發事故還可能讓它不受人歡迎。總之,依我的拙見,中國人在這方面還是聰明些,因為每個人都 取了不同的名字。偶而,有可能,兩個人用了相同的名字,畢竟我們都會選用有正面語義的名字,但那機率只有百萬分之一。

我經常想,英國人 讀 小說時,如果看到自己的名字出現在美好的情境中,一定會非常高興,像是:「安德魯真了不起,做了這樣的事!」一位漂亮女孩說道;或是,「史黛拉是我見過最 美的女孩。」一位帥氣的年輕人喃喃道。不過,話說回來,如果名叫亨利的男人在晚報上看到下面的標題:「亨利被控犯了謀殺罪」,他還讀得下去嗎?

我 想另一個原因,也許得以解釋為何英國人喜歡取相同的名字。我猜想,他們認為所有的人都是兄弟,所以傾向於以最大眾化的名字稱呼彼此。有時,在酒吧裡,喝 醉酒的人會喊我「傑克」或「約翰」。而國王、皇后、王子、和公主,也全都和老百姓有著相似的名字,再度證明了英國民主的本質。我想,中國在很早的時候,就 已經過濾了一些名字。中國有一本書是這麼說的:名有五……不以國,不以官,不以山川,不以隱疾,不以畜牲,不以器幣。

不過,在西元前二 世 紀,偶而還是有人用了這裡面的名字。回到那時候看看,有人以自己的生日或家族排行為名,很多人還以自己的職業命名。有些名字非常奇特,像「黑肱」、「黑 臀」、「羊肩」、「狐髮」等等,後來這些名字就沒人用了。男人的名字經常跟儒家德性相關,女人的名字經常是花名。雖然,取名的時候我們可以隨心所欲不受限 制,可是我們只有百家姓。我覺得很有趣,英國人只能自有限的人名裡選擇自己的名字,可他們的姓卻多到無法計數。我沒資格討論這些姓氏的起源或變遷,可我花 了三天時間,由倫敦電話簿上第一個名字翻到最後一個,而我必須說,那非常有趣!

我知道,雖然大家都會避免做荒唐事,卻喜歡聽聽別人這方 面 的經歷!我在電話簿上發現了許多沒法想像的英國姓氏。好比,一位有著漂亮雙唇的美麗女孩可能是「坎貝爾」(Campbell)家的人,這字最普遍的意思是 「不對稱的嘴巴」。一位英俊年輕人來自「卡麥隆」(Cameron)家,意思是「歪鼻子」。一個竊賊可能是「高貴先生」(Mr. Noble),一個生病走路慢吞吞的人可能是「匆忙先生」(Mr. Rush),一個矮子可能姓「長人」(Longfellow),一名國會議員可能是「管家先生」(Mr. Butler)。噢,仔細一想,真是太多太多了。我相信,沒有女士會喜歡生在「老年」(Old)或「衰老」(Older)家。

如果有人叫 作「貧窮先生」(Mr. Poor)或「沒錢先生」(Mr. Farthig),日子肯定不會好過。若客人名喚「貪心」(Greedy),主人心裡不知道會怎麼想。我不知道,如果好朋友裡有人姓「年輕丈夫」 (Younghusband)「達令」(Darling)「愛人」(Love)「親愛的」(Dear),到底該怎麼稱呼才妥當?「無愛」 (Loveless)先生或小姐可能有很多愛人,「和尚」(Monk)可能不是和尚!我想,我可能鼓不起勇氣和「大膽小姐」(Miss Dare)「男性小姐」(Miss Male)「男人太太」(Mrs. Manly)「元帥夫人」(Lady Marshall)「強壯女士」(Madam Strong)說說話。假設報上有這麼個標題:「Miss Middlemiss Missing」,而Missing是姓的話,我還真不知道該把middlemiss譯為中型小姐或中年小姐?

你也許會說,專有名詞頭一 個字母一定要大寫,可是,我有些同胞剛學英文,並見到類似「Englishs car runs over」的句子時,往往會抱怨,這句子有文法錯誤。他們其實不知道,「English」在這兒是姓氏。他們永遠沒法了解下面這種句子:「England reaches England」或「London is in London」。我們經常拿別人的名字玩遊戲,我想英國人也一樣,也許那遊戲還更有趣些。我們很少以姓氏玩遊戲,因為變化太有限,可是英國姓氏就不一樣 了。我試著寫過一篇短文,除了連接詞和介系詞,完全使用英國姓氏。


所 有斜體字都是姓氏。有一回,我碰到一名來自坎伯地(Cumberland),名叫「羊肉」的農民。他和我的朋友很熟,所以他們只以姓氏相稱。我們三個坐下 來,他們開始熱烈討論羊肉。我朋友說:「羊肉,羊肉怎樣了?」接下來的談話裡還不斷提到那兩個字。我得承認,那天我沒怎麼聽懂他們的對話!

我 們很早就知道近親結婚的壞處,所以遠自西元前一千二百年,有著同樣姓氏的人就不得通婚。雖然我們只有百家姓,卻找不到一對同姓的夫妻。一名北方男子絕不會 和同姓的年輕女孩發生關係,即使她住在南方。說來有趣,雖然姓氏繁多,英國人從不介意和同姓的人結婚。好比,報上有過這麼一篇文章:

那 記者興致似乎不小,標題寫著:「嫁了──姓氏不變」。我不清楚,同姓通婚是否真有壞處,可是中國人總認為,同姓的人一開始都是一家人。即使在如今步調快速 的時代,我們這方面的想法似乎依然不變!中國人是世界上最保守的民族!英國和中國名字間還有另一個區別。英文是教名在前,姓在後,中文卻剛好相反。自從來 到這裡,常常有人叫我彝先生,但其實應該是蔣先生。有些人比較小心,叫我蔣彝先生!


加 上詮釋,這些路名就變得有趣了!倫敦許多街道以聖人、國王、王子、知名家族命名,不過,令我費解的是,有好幾條街叫做「倫敦街」,好像到了外國城市一樣。 我真希望見到「雪原」和「半月街」這種地名,因為我在倫敦很少看到雪,也很少看到月亮。有一次我上腐爛街(Rotten Row),可那兒沒有半樣腐爛東西。還有一次我到了「耐心街」,卻見到滿街匆匆忙忙的人。倫敦還有兩個地方讓我印象深刻:會議巷(Meeting House Lane)和停戰大道(Makepeace Avenue)。我心想,喜歡開會、討論停戰事宜的人,怎麼都不來這兒呢?